External References to Early Islam

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The Cat
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External References to Early Islam

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Within this thread we shall gather different articles dealing with the beginning of Islam from non-Muslim sources.

The main references were given by Robert G. Hoyland's ''Seeing Islam As Others Saw It'',
many informative excerpts from the book are found here:
http://christianorigins.com/islamrefs.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Many names above have some wikipedia references, but I won't give them here.
More on St. John of Damascus(676-749),
http://www.answering-islam.org/Books/MW/john_d.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/stjohn_islam.aspx" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://www.bombaxo.com/blog/?p=210" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The Case of the Monk of Bêt Hãlê and a Muslim Emir
http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol3No1/HV3N1Griffith.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Coin, minted in Damascus in 690 by caliph adb al-Malik (682-705).
It clearly depicts Jesus as the M-H-M-D (Muhammad being the 'Praised One')....
Ummayad coins from Damascus

Greek inscription in the Bath of Gadara (Hamat-Gader, 662/3)
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Histor ... ammat.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The translation of the inscription is:
1. In the days of the servant of God Mu‘āwiya (Aramaic: Abdalla Maavia), the commander
2. of the faithful (amēra almoumenēn) the hot baths of the
3. people there were saved and rebuilt
4. by ‘Abd Allāh son of Abū Hāshim (Abouasemou), the
5. governor, on the fifth of the month of December,
6. on the second day (of the week), in the 6th year of the indiction (664AD),
7. in the year 726 of the colony, according to the Arabs (kata Arabas) the 42nd year,
8. for the healing of the sick, under the care of Ioannes,
9. the official of Gadara.

This Greek inscription from the time of Mu‘āwiya refers to the restoration of the baths. This was written by a Christian who had the sign of cross engraved in the beginning of the inscription. It is perhaps the earliest purely Greek inscription in Palestine with a hijra date.

The Muawiya inscription at the dam of Ta'if. No mention of Islam, of Muslims or Muhammad.
Yet the 'Arabs' calendar' is mentioned butt without any reference to the hegira.
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Histor ... ammat.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The inscription of Zuhayr, dated 644. The inscription is near al-Hijr (Mada'in Saleh, Hegra).
--This wadi al-Qura (6.92), al-Ula/Dedan (surnamed al-Haram, the koranic Masjid al-Haram) and al-Hijr (sura 15) as Hegra/Hegira, is also surrounded by Koranic places like Hala'l Badr, Tabouk, Khaybar. The earliest qiblas are indicating precisely this area!
picture: http://htmlimg3.scribdassets.com/7scg3k ... 75f55a.jpg" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
http://www.scribd.com/doc/199776621/Zuh ... nscription" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
All inscriptions. No Muhammad, no Islam, Koran or Muslims before the 2nd Fitnah (685)

http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Histor ... criptions/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
First ever mention of Islam (Ahl al-Islam), and of Muhammad, dated 691 (in the 2nd fitnah).
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Histor ... abasa.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The inscriptions at the Dome of the Rock, many verses are referring to Jesus, in a gnostic way (Ebionites, Nestorians?)
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/Histor ... /DoTR.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Early 'Islamic' coins
http://www.islamic-awareness.org/History/Islam/Coins/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Note: we've got two coins dated 685/691 mentioning the shahada.
Yet the formulae strangely disappeared for...150 years.

B. Books

Non-Muslims writings, as compiled by Robert G. Hoyland, at the rise of 'Islam'.
http://www.christianorigins.com/islamrefs.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Fred Donner's: At the Origins of Islam
http://books.google.ca/books?id=qBzRj7O ... &q&f=false" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Did Muhammad really existed? by Robert Spencer (some parts, lots of coins).
http://books.google.ca/books?id=fE06AwA ... ra&f=false" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Suggested reading about Spencer's book
https://themuslimissue.wordpress.com/20 ... nt-page-1/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

The Islamic Origins Debate Goes Public, by Peter von Sivers
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/ ... co_058.pdf" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, by Patricia Crone (excerpts from her book)
http://books.google.ca/books?id=VWL-_hR ... &q&f=false" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Hagarism: the Making of the Islamic World, by Patricia Crone, M. A. Cook (excerpts)
http://books.google.ca/books?id=Ta08AAA ... ca&f=false" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Richard Bell: The Origin of Islam in its Christian Environment
http://www.muhammadanism.org/bell/origin/p000vi.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Tom Holland : Islam, the Untold Story (video)..
http://vimeo.com/79051482" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Father Piccirillo
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obitu ... 38802.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
--One of his lasting contributions to the academic field was to demonstrate through archaeological evidence the continuity
of early Byzantine traditions into the Islamic periods, a theme now commonly accepted among most scholars of the subject.

We shouldn't forget the Sabian's holy book, called Haran Gawaitha, which mentions Muhammad as ''The Son Of Slaughter''.
http://www.gnosis.org/library/haran.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
I will tell you, (O ye ) priests who live in the Arab age, (of that which occurred) before the Son-of-Slaughter, the Arab, went out and prophesied as a prophet in the world so that they performed circumcision like Jews and changed sayings - for he is the most degraded of false prophets. Mars accompanieth him because he is the Seal of prophets of the Lie, (although) the Messiah will appear after him at the end of the age! I will inform you, Nasoraeans, that before the Son-of-Slaughter, the Arab, emerged and was called prophet in the world and Mars descended with him, he drew the sword and converted people to himself by the sword. About eighty-six years before the Son-of-Slaughter, the Arab, Adonai sent S'urbis'- Ruha who is his spouse, to the city of T'ib, called locally the City of As'ganda because of all that was done (during) his rule in Baghdad. (...)

According to Michael Cook, many tenets of Islam comes from the Jewish apocrypha ''Book of the Jubilees''.
http://www.sacred-texts.com/bib/jub/index.htm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Authority has the same etymological root as authenticity.
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