Ahadith have a number of uses:
• supporting the teaching of a particular sect against others (such as what nullifies ablution or which seafood is prohibited);
• flattering or justifying the authority and practices of a particular king against dissidents (such as Mahdy and Dajjal);
• promoting the interest of particular tribes or families (such as favouring the Quraysh tribe or Muhammad’s family);
• justifying sexual abuse and misogyny (such as Aisha’s age; barring women from leading Sala prayers);
• justify violence, oppression and tyranny (such as torturing members of the Urayna and Uqayla tribes, massacring the Jewish population in Medina and assassinating a female poet for her critical poems);
• exhorting more rituals and “righteousness” (such as nawafil prayers);
• validating superstitions (such as magic and idolising the black stone near the Kaaba);
• prohibiting certain things and actions (such as prohibiting drawing animal and human figures, playing musical instruments and chess);
• importing Jewish and Christian beliefs and practices (such as execution by stoning, circumcision, head scarf, hermitism and rosary);
• resurrecting pre-Islamic beliefs and practices common among Meccans (such as intercession, slavery, tribalism and misogyny);
• pleasing crowds with stories (such as the story of Miraj (ascension to Heaven) and bargaining for prayers);
• idolizing Muhammad and claim his superiority over other messengers (such as numerous miracles, including splitting the moon);
• defending hadith fabrications against monotheists (such as condemning people who find the Qur’an alone sufficient);
• advertising products of a particular farm (such as the benefits of dates grown in a town called Ajwa).
Hadith-followers believe that following ahadith is obligatory for Muslims.
Hadith-followers must prove that ahadith are actually from the Prophet and Allah (i.e. a part of Deen). Allah instructs:
“And follow not that of which you have not the knowledge; surely the hearing and the sight and the heart, all of these, shall be questioned about that.”
Thus without absolute certainty, we cannot follow ahadith as obligatory sources of religion. The Qur’an alone is the truth (2:91, 2:119, 2:144, 2:146-147, 2:176, 6:19, 10:32-33, 16:102, 35:31, 39:23, 45:6).
“And most of them do not follow (anything) but conjecture; surely conjecture will not avail aught against the truth; surely Allah is cognizant of what they do. And this Qur’an is not such as could be forged by those besides Allah, but it is a verification of that which is before it and a clear explanation of the book. There is no doubt in it, from the Lord of the worlds.”
Allah promised to preserve the Qur’an (15:9, 41:42, 75:17), but nothing else. The only mission of the Messenger was to convey the Message (5:67, 5:99). A part of conveying the Message was making sure that people could memorise and access it, thus he taught the Qur’an just as Allah taught it (55:1-2). In turn, Muslims are expected to teach it to each others (3:79).
Being alive at the time, the Messenger was able to personally dictate the Qur’an to his followers and ensure that thousands could commit it to memory. According to sources, the Messenger stated that he had delivered all Revelations to the believers.
It is not recorded that the Messenger took such care with ahadith. Since they were not written down and compiled into book form for some centuries after his death, it is clear that the Messenger could not verify what Sunnites and Shi’ites adhere to today.
Abi Said al Khudri reported that the Prophet said:
““Do not write down anything from me except the Qur’an. Whoever writes down anything other than the Qur’an must erase it. Narrate (from me) what you hear to others; there is no harm in that. But if anyone attributes a lie to me, he should prepare his seat in Hellfire.”
This is reported seven times in three different collections, with just minor variations in wording.
There are some ahadith to be found where the Prophet permitted the writing of unspecified material, but it should be kept it in mind that the circumstances were vague and that the people were permitted, not instructed.
Thus as a retort to the abovementioned hadith, scholars say that the original prohibition was for the sake of keeping traditions separate from the Qur’an.
The Prophet could have specified this by ordering that all ahadith be labelled as such, or that the Qur’an and ahadith be kept separate.
Some then retort that there was a shortage of writing material.
Again, this could have been specified and it does not explain why the writing material was to be destroyed.
They then explain that the rest of the hadith states that it is permissible to narrate. This is no surprise because the Messenger followed only the Qur’an. He could not force people to not talk about him, but the hadith quite clearly forbids ahadith becoming a competing source of religion. Narrating to others was offered as an alternative for his eager audience, but the Messenger never said that it was mandatory. The words “there is no harm in that” confirm that it is an optional alternative, and that only the truth (for example his Qur’anic conduct) was to be mentioned. In short, the enshrinement of ahadith by Sunnites and Shi’ites is impeached by their own sources. Mixing ahadith with religion is the same as physically mixing them with the Book.
There are other ahadith where the Messenger praises the passing on of a “tradition”, but it is never compulsory and the reason is given (that someone else may understand it better). In short, the passing on of Qur’anic narrations for discussion was allowed.
Several ahadith reported on the authority of Zayd state that the Prophet never lifted the writing-prohibition. The situations in which he says this vary, but the idea is consistent.
ibn Hanbal’s version:
“Zayd ibn Thabit (the Prophet’s personal aide and scribe) was visiting the house of Mu’awiya (thirty years after the Prophet’s demise) and was narrating to the Caliph a story about the Prophet. The Caliph, who became much impressed with the story, suddenly asked his scribe to record the story. Zayd then cautioned the Caliph thus: “The holy Prophet has forbidden us from writing down anything from his ahadith.”
(also Sahih Muslim, Book 42, Number 7147)
In the Musnad of Imam Ahmad we find the disciples narrating:
“Whatever utterances we heard from the Prophet we noted down in writing. One day it happened that the Messenger appeared and asked us about the subject of our writings. We replied that whatsoever we hear from his lips we transform it into writing. To this he said:
“What! – are you compiling another book along with the book of Allah?” (meaning in other words that this cannot be possible). He then commanded us to keep Allah’s words pure and that we not amalgamate them with any kind of ambiguities. So we made a bonfire of our notes and parables in an open field.
(Quoted from “Tudween e Hadith”, p.249).
“Shaddad bin Ma’qil and I entered on ibn ‘Abbas. Shaddad bin Ma’qil asked him: “Did the Prophet leave anything (besides the Qur’an)?” He said: “He did not leave anything except what is between the bindings (of the Qur’an).” Then we visited Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyya and asked of him (the same question). He said: “The Prophet did not leave anything except what is between the bindings (of the Qur’an).”
Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 61, Number 537: Narrated by ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Rufai’
The attitude of the “four Caliphs” supports the conclusions of above. Following the death of the Prophet, they did everything possible to prevent the spread of ahadith whilst having the opportunity to collect all that they wished. With proper supervision, such an action could have provided a much more sound compilation than what there is today, but the surprise does not last when we realise that ahadith were never meant to be written down.
“Abu Bakr gathered the public after the death of the Prophet and addressed them thus: “You are transmitting conflicting ahadith that clash with the words of the Prophet. The persons to follow you will be in a worse predicament. Transmit no ahadith from the Prophet. Speak to those who would like you to transmit ahadith in this way: “Behold! God’s book is with us, abide by what has been made lawful for you therein and avoid what has been prohibited.”
Zahabi, Tezkiratul Huffaz.
Imam Zahabi quotes another parable of the Messenger’s wife, Aisha, recording:
“The wife of the Messenger mentions that her father (Hazrat Abu Bakr) had collected the ahadith of the Messenger which were five hundred in number. She says:
“One night I noticed that my father was restless in bed and was very perturbed. I asked him if he was in some bodily pain or whether or not his condition was due to any bad news that he might have heard. He did not answer my question. In the morning he asked me to bring him the collection of ahadith and he made a bonfire of them all.”
(Quoted in “Tudween e Hadith”, p.285-88)
As far as Hazrat Omar’s caliphate is concerned, Allama ibn Abdulbur has mentioned him in his famous book “Jama e Biyaan ul ilm”, wherein he records:
“Omar wanted to compile the sayings and parables of the Messenger. He asked the companions of the Messenger to grant him a decree, to which they faithfully conceded. Yet in spite of the companions’ consent, Omar was not convinced. For one whole month Hazrat Omar performed Istekhara. One morning when Allah calmed his body and mind and he was able to concentrate on the issue at hand, he talked to his people about his decision to compile the ahadith. Then he declared: “I thought about the generations that have passed before us, who wrote books and adhered to those books so strongly that they forgot the Book of Allah. I swear by Allah, I will not let the word of Allah be amalgamated with other words.”
(Quoted in “Tadween e Hadith”, page 394)
This was decided as the Messenger had ordered every companion to dictate nothing besides the Qur’an. Omar did not finish the matter here. He not only prohibited and banned the collection of ahadith, he went a step further and, as is written in Tubqaat ibn Sa’ad:
“During Hazrat Omar’s caliphate the ahadith were in abundance. He reacted by putting the people under oath that whatever ahadith the people had in their possession they would bring to him. As commanded, the public submitted whatever they possessed. He then ordered a public bonfire of ahadith.”
This was the third incident of igniting hadith-collections (the first ignition took place when the Messenger commanded it. The second instance was when Hazrat Abu Bakr did the same with his own collection, and the third was when Hazrat Omar took all the collections from the people under oath and publicly ignited them). Each incident was in the capital city. Of what happened afterwards we get a glimpse in Hafiz ibn Abdulbur’s Jama e Biyaan, wherein he states:
“Though Omar ibn Khattaab first expressed his desire to compile the ahadith, it dawned upon him later that it would not be appropriate. He thus sent a circular in the districts and cantonments to destroy whatever ahadith anybody was in possession of.
(“Tadween e Hadith”, Vol.1, page 400)
He writes further and gives us a detailed account of how elaborate and precautionary measures were taken for the compilation of the Qur’an. If the government wanted, what could possibly have come in the way of adopting the same policy towards the compilation of the ahadith? He states that the government of that time had a specific purpose in mind by rejecting ahadith.
Furthermore, according to Qaza bin Qa’ab:
“When Caliph Omar sent us to Iraq, he emphatically drummed it into our heads that Iraq was a place where sounds of the Qur’an echo like wild bees, and that we must exercise extreme precaution so as not to distract people’s minds with all kinds of ahadith.
“It was asked of Abu Huraira if he remembered during Hazrat Omar’s caliphate stating the ahadith in the same way he was doing now. He responded that if he had done so, Hazrat Omar would have physically scolded him.
It has also come down to us that Hazrat OmarR had imprisoned Hazrat Abdullah bin Ma’soodR, Abu DurdaR and Abu Ma’sood AnsariR for illegally possessing ahadith.
This was the situation at the time of the Messenger and his companions.
Further ahadith which suggest that ahadith were not actually a part of Islam (contradicting blatantly Sunni ahadith):
“Narrated by ibn Abbas: When Allah's Apostle was on his death-bed and in the house there were some people among whom was Umar bin Al-Khattab, the Prophet said: “Come, let me write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.” Umar said: “The Prophet is seriously ill and you have the Qur’an; so the Book of Allah is enough for us.” The people present in the house differed and quarrelled. Some said “Go near so that the Prophet may write for you a statement after which you will not go astray,” while the others said as Umar said. When they caused a hue and cry before the Prophet, Allah’s Apostle said, “Go away!” Narrated Ubaidullah: ibn Abbas used to say: “It was very unfortunate that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise.”
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 7, Book 70, Number 573
“Narrated ibn Abbas: Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Apostle became worse (on Thursday) and he said: “Fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray.” The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a prophet. Some said, “What is wrong with him? (Do you think) he is delirious (seriously ill)? Ask him (to understand his state).” So they went to the Prophet and asked him again. The Prophet said, “Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for.” Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, “Turn the pagans out of the Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them.” (Said bin Jubair, the sub-narrator said that ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, “I forgot it.”).
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 716
“Narrated Ubaidullah bin Abdullah: ibn Abbas said: “When Allah's Apostle was on his deathbed and there were some men in the house, he said: “Come near, I will write for you something after which you will not go astray.” Some of them (i.e. his companions) said, “Allah's Apostle is seriously ill and you have the (Holy) Qur’an. Allah’s Book is sufficient for us.” So the people in the house differed and started disputing. Some of them said: “Give him writing material so that he may write for you something after which you will not go astray.” while the others said the other way round. So when their talk and differences increased, Allah’s Apostle said: “Get up.” ibn Abbas used to say: “No doubt, it was very unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah’s Apostle was prevented from writing for them that writing because of their differences and noise.”
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Number 717
“Narrated Said bin Jubair: That he heard ibn Abbas saying, “Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that ibn Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked ibn Abbas, “What is (about) Thursday?” He said, “When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah’s Apostle deteriorated, he said: “Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.” The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet. They said: “What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him (to understand).” The Prophet replied: “Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.” Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying: “Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.” The sub-narrator added, “The third order was something beneficial which either ibn Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.”
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 53, Number 393
“In the evening the Prophet got up and glorified Allah as He deserved and then said, “Why do some people impose conditions which are not present in Allah’s Book? Whoever imposes such a condition as is not in Allah’s laws, then that condition is invalid even if he imposes one hundred conditions, for Allah's conditions are more binding and reliable.”
(Bukhari Book #34, Hadith #364)
“Allah’s Apostle ascended the pulpit and said, “What about those people who stipulate conditions which are not in Allah’s laws? Whoever stipulates such conditions as are not in Allah’s laws, then those conditions are invalid even if he stipulated a hundred such conditions.”
(Bukhari Book #50, Hadith #893)
A hadith which sunnis accept (e.g. Ibn Hajar (in Isaba) and Ibn Abdu'l-Bar (in Isti'ab)) quote from Abu Huraira that the Prophet said, “There are many who misquote me, and one who misrepresents me has his abode in Hell. When a hadith is reported to you on my behalf, you should put it before the Holy Qur'an.”
Another hadith acknowledged by both sects, narrated by Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi in his Tafsir Kabir, Volume II, page 271, reports that the Prophet said, “When a hadith from me is reported to you, put it before the Book of Allah. If it agrees with the Holy Qur'an, accept it. Otherwise, reject it.
In this day and age it would take years to assemble a reliable and accurate biography. In Bukhari’s time there were no computers, yet he managed to assess countless people without leaving any evidence of research. The Persian Imams “rubber-stamped” each other’s preferences (or simply included their own without takings such time).
The majority of ahadith only appeared in the time of the successors (and the successors to the successors) of the Companions. The “tabi’in” are the generations after the Companions of the Prophet, some 70-120 years later. The “tabi tabi’in” are the successors of the successors, their time being 130-190 years following that of the Prophet.
Thus the majority of ahadith arose about 100-200 years after the Prophet. However accurate the methodology of “isnad” was, the scholars only started talking about it 150-200 years following the deaths of the last “tabi tabi’in”. This means that when the research to establish the isnad was initiated, none of the Companions, the succeeding generation or the generation after was able to provide any kind of guidance or rebuttal.
Thus, the authenticity of the statements cannot be vouched for at all.
Even students of elementary psychology would know that a message of fifteen words will get distorted in passing through about five messengers. Remember that ahadith contain thousands of detailed and complex narrations, covering things from ablution to jurisprudence. These narrations passed through hundreds of narrators spread out over thousands of miles of desert, spanning two or three hundred years.
All this at a time when news travelled at the speed of a camel’s gait, recorded on pieces of leather or bone or scrolls, in a land without abundance of paper or scribes for written record.
It is unlikely that the hadith-writers could have been very accurate, even if they were sincere. A camel-journey from Mecca to Damascus might take a month or two; in fact any journey between the major populated areas of the time was lengthy.
It is therefore unlikely that the hadith-writers verified the thousands of details personally. It stands to reason that they relied upon story-telling to fill in the blanks.
Scholars invented the concept of “tadil” of the Companions which mandates that they (the Companions) were protected from committing any error when recalling or narrating the Prophet’s “traditions”. This is refuted by the many contradictions, inconsistencies and memory-lapses of hadith-narrators.
Thus the “Science of Ahadith” is hearsay and conjecture, prohibited by 6:122-116 and 10:37-38 of the Qur’an.
Bukhari is reported to have sifted through more than 600,000 ahadith, and presented only 7,275 in his “authentic” collection. A quick calculation will show that these figures are impossible for a human-being to achieve. If, on average, each hadith consists of three sentences (in truth many run into paragraphs), Bukhari would have had to collect, study, investigate, evaluate and record over 1.8 million sentences during a period of 40 years. This is the equivalent of researching (which includes the long camel-journeys to-and-fro across the desert) and attesting to the authenticity of over three hundred books, each equivalent to the thickness and complexity of the Qur’an, in 40 years.
Compare this to the 6346 verses revealed to the Prophet over 23 years. According to another source, ibn Hanbal reported that there were over 700,000 authentic ahadith. If this were correct, then working for 23 years at a pace of 18 hours a day, seven days a week, the Prophet would have had to produce one hadith about every 13 minutes.
Reliance upon “isnad” alone is thus unacceptable. Ahadith should be evaluated using their content and logic, and any hadith with an “authentic” isnad yet illogical content should be wholly rejected.
The weakness of ahadith can be considered from three aspects:
1) Contradiction to the Qur’an.
2) Contradiction to history, known scientific facts or common sense.
3) Contradiction to other ahadith.
Under this selection process, most ahadith in all collections would be rejected.
Persian Imams, their original collection and categorisation as “sahih”:
Bukhari: Found 600,000, selected 2762.
Muslim: Found 300,000, selected 4348.
Trimzi: Found 500,000, selected 3115.
Abu Dawood: Found 500,000, selected 4800.
Ibn Maja: Found 400,000, selected 4000.
Nisai: Found 200,000, selected 4321.
Some suspicious personalities (see 9:101):
1. Wakidi - A Magian historian.
2. ibn Ishaq - A Jew and pro-Majoosi Historian (Imam, Malik 2nd Fiqa Imam declared him a Kafir & said his books “Seera” are a heap of lies).http://www.answering-christian-claims.c ... Ishaq.htmlhttp://quransmessage.com/articles/ibn%20ishaq%20FM3.htm
3. All hadith-Imams from Persia may have been hidden Zoroastrians. These include Bukhari, Muslim, Trimzi, Abu Dawood, ibn Kaja and Nisaayee.
4. Amar bin Aaas - A hypocrite?
5. ibn Hisham - A Magian student/apprentice of ibn Ishaq.
6. Wahab bin Monaba - A hypocrite (who fabricated a hadith along with Ka’ab Al-Ahabr & Abu Huraira that Jesus went up alive and will come again. They copied this story from the Pauline Christians. However, in the oldest manuscripts of Bibles (3rd century), no trace of his ascension is to be found (this story was apparently added later).
7. Hamam bin Monabba - A hypocrite?
8. Ka’ab Al-Ahbar - Ring-leader of the hypocrites? He was a Jewish Rabai from Yaman, who apparently accepted Islam in order to harm it. He was also the mastermind for the murder plan of the 2nd Caliph: Umar bin Khattab.
9. ibn Abbas and Amar bin are suspicious because they were students of Ka’ab Al-Ahbar.
10. Abu Hurraira - A machine who apparently produced over 5000 ahadith in just 2 years. He was an ex-Yamni Jew and was a student of K’a’ab Al-Ahbar.
11- Imam Tabri - A Magian Zoroastrian with two different paternal identities.
12- Shuab Zuhri and Yaqoob Kileeni - collected lies in Al-Kaafi, and were Sabaite pro-Parsi Shi’ites.