hijab/veil and vitamin D deficiency
Osteoperosis and Islam
http://www.mja.com.au/public/issues/177 ... 09_fm.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;High bone turnover in Muslim women with vitamin D deficiency
Objective: To measure bone turnover in Muslim women with vitamin D deficiency.
Design: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of Muslim women aged 20–65 years, evaluated over a 6-month period from November 1999 to April 2000.
Setting and participants: 146 women living in an urban community in south-western Sydney with adequate opportunities for sun exposure.
Main outcome measures: Bone turnover as measured by urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPYD) excretion rates; and vitamin D status as determined by 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, serum calcium levels and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations.
Results: We analysed data on 119 Muslim women (mean [SEM] age, 46.6 [1.1] years) who met the inclusion criteria. There were 81 (68.1%) women with serum 25OHD levels < 30 nmol/L (defined as "severe" vitamin D deficiency). Fifty-five (46.2%) women had evidence of high bone turnover (urinary DPYD excretion > 6.5 nmol/mmol creatinine). The women with "severe" vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher serum PTH levels (7.3 [0.3] v 5.4 [0.5] pmol/L; P = 0.001) and higher urinary DPYD excretion (7.2 [0.3] v 5.4 [0.2] nmol/mmol creatinine; P = 0.003) than women with serum 25OHD levels ≥ 30 nmol/L. No significant differences were seen in their ages, menopausal status or serum calcium and phosphate measurements. The risk of developing high bone turnover was significantly greater in the women with "severe" vitamin D deficiency (relative risk = 5.52; 95% CI, 2–14.8; χ2 = 12.95; P = 0.0003).
Conclusion: High bone turnover occurs in Muslim women with vitamin D deficiency.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/1154211.stm" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;Rickets upsurge among UK Asians
An increase in the number of cases of the bone disease rickets may be partly due to strict Muslim dress codes, say doctors.
The Asian community appears to be particularly vulnerable to the disease, which is caused by a lack of vitamin D.
This is produced naturally by the body when strong light hits the skin.
However, traditional Muslim female dress places emphasis on relatively little skin being exposed to sunlight.
This can lead to a vitamin D deficiency in mothers which is then passed on to their children during and after pregnancy.
The deficiency stops the bones developing properly, producing bow-legs and thickened wrists and ankles.
It was common at the turn of the century, but improved nutrition led virtually to its eradication from the UK.
If left untreated, the only remedy may be painful and scarring surgery.
Girls approaching puberty who are adhering to traditional dress are also at risk, say experts, as more vitamin D is needed during this growth spurt.
In addition, modern GPs are so unused to seeing cases that the disease is often not recognised until the symptoms are far more advanced.
Gaznhar Din, whose son was eventually diagnosed, said: "I went to the local health centre - I told him that the child didn't walk - and that he had got no teeth.
"They told me he was probably a late developer."
Dr Zulf Mughal, from St Mary's Hospital in Manchester, described an case in which a young girl had to have operations to correct both the bones in both legs.
"She has been left with scars on both her legs, which is not pleasant," he said.
The level of sunlight experienced in the UK over between late autumn and early Spring is not enough in itself to protect darker-skinned children from rickets.
http://www.scidev.net/en/news/vitamin-d ... losis.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;"A study in Tunisia found that nearly half the study population had vitamin D levels well below the threshold for D deficiency," said Adams. "Similar results were found on the Indian subcontinent."
http://www.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk/ne ... uncovered/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;56 cases of rickets uncovered
VITAMIN supplements are being introduced in Blackburn with Darwen after 56 cases of rickets have been revealed.
The amount of people afflicted with the vitamin D deficiency, which causes bone softening in very young children and was linked to poverty in the 1930s, was discovered in a study commissioned by East Lancashire Primary Care Trust.
http://www.news.faithfreedom.org/index. ... le&sid=315" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;In 1931, Dagmar Curjel Wilson conducted a survey among several thousands of school age children in what was then northern India. He concluded that the causes of rickets were predominantly social, such as purdah, (wearing of the the veil and burka, and seclusion for females), as well as poor housing design preventing access to sunlight, and an inadequate diet.
Since then, evidence of burkas causing a chemical deficiency of vitamin D has come to light from various sources. A 2001 study by Sonia R Grover and Ruth Morley was carried out among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in the Royal Women's Hospital, a teaching hospital in Melbourne, Victoria. The study concerned 94 women who were veiled or of dark skin. 82 of these agreed to be screened, and 66 women (80%) were found to be having low levels of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
Another study from Australia published in the same year, carried out by Josephine M. Nozza and Christine P. Rodda discovered that of 55 children who were found to have osteomalacia, 54 of these were from mothers who had the ethnocultural factors (wearing veils/burkas and/or dark skin) expected. When 31 of the 55 mothers were tested (81%), 25 of these (81%) were found to have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, consistent with osteomalacia. The evidence had been gathered in two clinical admisitrative regions in Melbourne Victoria between June 1994 and February 1999.
More reports on Australia and Vitamin D deficiency among "multiethnic" Australians can be found here and in another report concerning Sydney. The latter report found that an increasing number of cases of children with rickets was being discovered in Sydney. 126 cases were diagnosed between 1993 and 2003. Almost exclusively, the incidence of childhood rickets came either from Africa (33%), the Indian subcontinent (37%) and the Middle East (11%). 79% of the cases were children born in Australia. A third of the cases presented initially with the hypocalcaemic seizures, and 22% already had bowed legs.
A study of Arab women in Denmark (Calcif Tissue Int 2000; 66: 419-424) by researchers Glerup, Mikkelsen, Poulsen and others found that a group of Arab women suffering from muscle pain and weakness were suffering from a deficiency of vitamin D, which improved after three months of vitamin D therapy.
Another Australian study reported in the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Australia and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Cairns, June 1999, found that Muslim women were 2.5 times more likely to be suffering from bone pains and osteoporosis than women of European descent.
So what is happening, it appears, is that traditional methods of covering up women in burkas depletes the available vitamin D in the body, leading to symptoms related to or directly causing rickets. But additionally, it also appears that these women then give birth to children who also have a lack of the necessary vitamin D byproducts to prevent rickets, unless these children are exposed while very young to sunlight, the source of most of the body's natural vitamin D.
In women who only breast fed their infants from the affected groups in the Australian studies, there appeared to be a higher incidence of children who had rickets and its related symptoms. Milk formulas and most cows' milk in the West has additional vitamin D added. But normal breast milk contains only minimal amounts of vitamin D, probably due to our evolutionary origins in tropical and sunny climes.