Abraham's God Was Anu

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manfred
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by manfred »

Well I have no problem in accepting that the religion of Abraham did not develop from nothing, and there may well be some roots and/or parallel developments in Babylon, or even elsewhere in the region.

But with religions is it a bit like with people.... it in not merely who you father is that determines who you are, but what you decide to do. You get your religious ideas from your ancestors, but what you make of them is up to you and your ideas in turn may influence later generations.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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That's the issue preciously - as the news starts spreading the original story is broken into multiple versions. And then it gets even more complicated as the story is missing from the records for over a 1000 years. So where is the oral tradition?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Previously I wrote:
Genesis can only be an Amorite/Aramaic tradition.
I stand corrected. It can only be an Hebrew tradition. Moses is unknown north of the imaginary line Tiberias-Petra and Abraham south of it. So Genesis is where the oral traditions of Abraham and Moses hook up to shape a new theological tradition as described in Genesis. The story of Moses is probably enhanced with the Legend of Sargon.

Previously I wrote
If Abraham is or relates to Hammurabi then many questions are resolved instantly.
I stand corrected. Hammie's Amorite empire was actually rather small compared with a much larger Amorite one stretching from the east banks of the Nile to northern Mesopotamia. It was ruled by a certain Ishmae-Hadad also known as Ishmae-El (Ishmae-il). That's were the search has to hook up.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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So Genesis is where the oral traditions of Abraham and Moses hook up....
hmpff, should be...
So Genesis and Exodus is where the oral traditions of Abraham and Moses hook up....
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Geographical distribution of the nameless God over the Near East: 'L or DD - God

I was about to give up on the Amorite/Hyksos hypothesis when fellow researcher B. forwarded his latest query results on Moses. Where Moses can't be attested in any inscription (as far as we know) his brother Aron/Harun is with Semitic root HRN in Sabaean inscriptions like 'LMQHL HRN'. And the location is essential: Ma'rib in Yemen.

LMQH is the supreme Sabaean or Yemenite god Almaqah. Almaqah is often depicted by a cluster of lightning bolts surrounding a fertility symbol, a vine and commonly associated with the holy Bull. He's a sky/weather god, the protector of life and growth to the agricultural people of the region in Ma'rib and "Lord of the Mountain."

So why is this important? These inscriptions date from circa 8th century BC proving that LMQH/Almaqah is identical, a manifestation or an epithet of much older supreme Sabaean God Hadad. Like Almaqah Hadad is a sky/weather god, associated with the bull, fertility, a holy mountain and depicted in the same manner. Hadad was introduced to the Near East in 2500 BC (attested in Ebla as "Hadda") by the Amorites or Amurru.

So this indicates a Sabaean origin for the Amorites and there's solid evidence for this hypothesis. The name (H)adad builds upon South Arabian Sabaean root dd which is used in Sabaean, Thamudic, Lihyanite and Amorite Akkadian as a theophorus component in proper names. a prime example is Yasmah-Adad or Ismah-Adad, an Amorite ruler over an empire even bigger that H'ammurapi's Amorite Babylon.

But root dd appears also separately as a divine attribute in votive inscriptions and is also used as a synonym for God in Sabaean - Íl. This is attested in Amorite Akkadian, an extinct Eastern Semitic language, where the name of ruler Ismah-Adad appears as Isma'l in the Mari tablets around 1800 BC.

So there are religious, linguistical and etymological pipelines from Sabaean Ma'rin in Yemen to the areas where Amorites settle in the Near East with a nameless God referred as Hadad with many of the characteristics of the nameless God mentioned in the first chapters of the Old Testament, Baal, Baal Shamin, Adad in Northern Mesopotamia and Babylon, Dushura, Qos and even Dionysus. Differences develop over time in different areas but that's something for a different topic.

Amorites migrate from Yemen around 2500 BC and settle in the Sinai, Negev, Lebanon, Jordan, Midian, Eastern Syria and Northern Mesopotamia introducing the nameless God. After a few centuries their influence affects larger areas as they conquer small city states in Canaanite and Mesopotamia. Two Amorite rulers create, almost simultaneously two Amorite empires: Ismah-Adad or Isma'il and Hammurabi. Ten years after Hammie's death the Amorite elite migrates from southern Mesopotamia to the homeland of Harran - a process matching the descriptions of the Old Testament and the Mari Tablets.

This is preciously the moment when Biblical names are introduced such as Ya`qob-'l, Ya`qob-har, Abamram and Abram in Babylonian texts of the 16th century BC and Mari tablets, Nahor, Terah, Serug and names built on the same roots as Gad, Dan and Levi. Mari texts even describe an Amorite tribe named the Banu-yamina (Benjamin). This all indicates that the names employed in the Genesis record are those of the nomenclature of the day, those of Amorite Harran to be precise and that this particular moment in time is a breaking point between proto-Yahwist* religions and proto-Abrahamic religions. It seems that proper names of Amorite legends and religious leaders were used to create a religious lineage.

It is also a breaking point in scholarship. The Amorites spoke a variant of Sabaean and wrote in Akkadian which means that the name of God in the Amorite language is Il and not El. The nameless God ('L or DD) belongs to the Sabaean tradition only and was injected into the Canaanite pantheon where Adad was adopted as the son of El, the local supreme deity, and later becomes Dionysus in the Aleppo branch of the nameless god.

Is there further prove for this model? Well basically all we have to do is follow the
- fertility symbols of the nameless god (vine, grain)
- power symbol of the nameless god (Bull)
- war/weather symbols of the nameless god: thunderbolts
- types of veneration: holy mountain and high places
- key linguistical root patterns such as DD and RBB (rabbi, master, teacher)
and validate them against the settlement patterns of the Amorites (meaning 'speakers', carriers of the oral tradition).

A final note: of course there's much more to it - this model generates more questions then it answers but only because traditional scholarship does not provide. This model will be extended - what to do for instance with the female partner of the nameless god: Ashera/Lady of the Desert/Alat/etc..?

----------------------------------
* proto-Yahwist: term I use for the religion of the nameless god 'L or DD.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Yet another update and the last one in this thread.

According to most monotheism developed from polytheism. So fellow researcher B. queried the JSTOR archive for pantheons (collections of deities) of known cultures during the period 2900 - 2600 BC, the moment the nameless hod DD was introduced to the Near East or Levant. Unfortunately there were no significant results, if any. All literal sources describing pantheons occur 500 to 1000 years later. That makes one wonder why so many scholars compare root gods in the context of pantheons that come much later into existence.

So what does this mean? As the root gods of the main cultures share the same characteristics they are simply one and the same. The nameless god Il/El/DD is the very name as
- Amorite Amurru
- Mesopotamian Anu
- Akkadian Hadad
- Canaanite/Ugaritic Dagan (dgn = grain) from Lebanon
Example Evidence: Hamurabbi dedicates, in the introduction of his Law Book, his work to his creator, Dgn.

So I have to make a correction:
It is also a breaking point in scholarship. The Amorites spoke a variant of Sabaean and wrote in Akkadian which means that the name of God in the Amorite language is Il and not El.
That's wrong: Il equals El ( but not for the reasons traditional scholarship provides.)

It seems to me that polytheism doesn't come before semi-monotheism or whatever you wanna call it. Cause the nameless god has always a 'lady' by his side. At least it becomes obvious that some scholars can't handle concepts like simplicity and complexity.

Finally: Marduk's hypothesis is right.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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You seem to be quite quickly find certainty in question such as this.
In Mesopotamia, Anu was often depicted as a BULL. The Hebrew God was not, in fact we have an episode of a "Bull-God" in Exodus, which suggest a rejection that YHWH is such a deity. The Levant had many deities at the time of Moses, and many appear to be related to Mesopotamian ones.

But the origins of the Hebrew God is murky, at least to me... There is another candidate: Enlil...

This is an older deity which vanished by 1000 BC or so. He was in charge of the heavens, and also the weather. He brought about the great flood, as told in the epic of Gilgamesh, and he held the "tablets of destiny", is a creator god, and at times vengeful, at other times merciful. He was later banished by Anu...

What is also interesting that, unlike the Hebrew deity, this one was capable of wrong doing, he raped his future wife.

So perhaps the God of Abraham was BASED on Enlil or Anu, or a conflation of both, but with some significant changes. The Hebrew God is portrayed as sometimes jealous or angry, but also kind and forgiving, a deity that guides humanity. This is not a Mesopotamian concept, their pantheon is a rumbustious bunch with limited self control and morals. They are not "role models" as a whole.

So my hunch is that Abraham's deity may well have a root in either or both of these gods, as a sort of "blueprint", but by the time Abraham's story was written at least, the concept had developed quite a lot, and that process continued, as the NT God shows another character again.

What is not certain when and how the connection between Abraham's God and the God of Moses was made, but as Abraham was seen as a defining figure of the Israelites, and we know they called themselves "israelites" before Moses from an Egyptian stele, Menepta, we can assume that this was an early process.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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You seem to be quite quickly find certainty in question such as this.
What's life without temptation?
In Mesopotamia, Anu was often depicted as a BULL.
Basically I refer to the early Bronze age when Anu had few attributes - but he had identical treats with other supposed root gods.
The Hebrew God was not, in fact we have an episode of a "Bull-God" in Exodus, which suggest a rejection that YHWH is such a deity.
I disagree. There are shared attributes. For instance, Yahweh's temple was decorated with vine ranks and a golden grape, shared fertility symbols. But my previous post is about the glue, not Yahweh specifically.
The Levant had many deities at the time of Moses, and many appear to be related to Mesopotamian ones
True, but not in the time when the nameless god appeared, 2900-2600 BC.
But the origins of the Hebrew God is murky, at least to me... There is another candidate: Enlil...
Enlil (and Enki) is a son of Anu. Appears later in written records.
This is an older deity which vanished by 1000 BC or so. He was in charge of the heavens, and also the weather. He brought about the great flood, as told in the epic of Gilgamesh, and he held the "tablets of destiny", is a creator god, and at times vengeful, at other times merciful. He was later banished by Anu...
Agree. Undoubtedly different traditions influence each other, bit that is not something I will address. This also refers to a funny phenomenon among some scholars. As soon as they read 'God, our lord, protector and savior' in an archaic language 4 new gods are added to the polytheistic spectrum.
So perhaps the God of Abraham was BASED on Enlil or Anu, or a conflation of both, but with some significant changes. The Hebrew God is portrayed as sometimes jealous or angry, but also kind and forgiving, a deity that guides humanity. This is not a Mesopotamian concept, their pantheon is a rumbustious bunch with limited self control and morals. They are not "role models" as a whole.
Possible. Still I think that a Yemenite origin is more likely (see reasons presented earlier). Counter arguments such as 'Amorites introduces the nameless god DD to Yemen' have little value - why would they only introduce God when they introduced the same god with a wide range of new technologies in Egypt simultaniously?
So my hunch is that Abraham's deity may well have a root in either or both of these gods, as a sort of "blueprint", but by the time Abraham's story was written at least, the concept had developed quite a lot, and that process continued, as the NT God shows another character again.
Likely. What surprises me is that, with an exception for what I call historical prototyping and related lineages, Genesis is very factual and accurate. There seem to be all kind of leads for a Noah like figure in Yemen somewhere between 2900 - 2600 BC: flood + mass migration of two Bronze age nations to the Near East.
What is not certain when and how the connection between Abraham's God and the God of Moses was made, but as Abraham was seen as a defining figure of the Israelites, and we know they called themselves "israelites" before Moses from an Egyptian stele, Menepta, we can assume that this was an early process.
Hmm I think I have a potential solution here - Moses comes 100 years after the Hyksos/Amorite period or is kicked out with them simultaneously - which would place him directly in the Abrahamic tradition. That would be a simple and logical explanation. This period possibly relates to a pharaoh who suddenly introduces a nameless god.

If the written history of the Middle East starts with a dominant nameless god who gives birth to multiple branches it can only be the Hebrew Bible that collects and bundles traditions of the nameless god from different communities. Hmm.. nice hypothesis.

That leaves another question: how is it possible that the nameless God appears in many places in such a short time span? Most likely the 'Amorites' introduced the Bronze age - no idea how to prove this.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Manfred wrote:
The Hebrew God was not, in fact we have an episode of a "Bull-God" in Exodus, which suggest a rejection that YHWH is such a deity.
Shortly after the theophoric names Abraham, Ishma'l/Ishmae-Hadad and Yah appear in Amorite Akkadian a new cult manifests itself in Shechem (also mentioned in Joshua). Inscriptions mention a 'Baal Berith' or 'Lord of the Covenant'. At the same time and place Ba'al is addressed as 'Lord of Heavens' and 'Lord God'.

DD/El/Il (God)
=> Hadad
=> Ba'al (Lord)
=> Ba'al Hadad (Lord God)
=> Ba'al Shamin (Lord of the Heavens)
=> Ba'al Berith (Lord of the Covenant)

The epic of Ba'al names Ba'al hadad as 'Rider of the Clouds', identical to a title used for Yahweh in Psalms 68:4. It looks like Ba'al Hadad and YHWH have many shared attributes of the nameless god(dd/El/Il) with one major difference: the Bull symbol. Perhaps it could be an artificial difference, added by the author of Exodus?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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There's another promising line of evidence for the Amorites-bring-it-all hypothesis: after the migration form Yemen Mesopotamia starts importing bronze and copper on a industrial scale from Southern Arabia, especially from legendary 'Magan' country in Oman, up to 20 tons per shipload. Until 3000-2800 BC copper was imported from the Caucasus.

Recent excavations and isotope analysis indicate that Yemenites had access to advanced mining techniques from Oman and the Kush kingdom in Sudan which were unknown in Mesopotamia, an area that lacks mineral resources. All other other potential sources, with the exception of ancient mines in Sinai, have been eliminated.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Well the psalms are quite a bit later than Abraham. This particular one mentions the first movement of the ark of the covenant. "the Lord has come from Sinai into his sanctuary". So we can deduce from that that it was written after about 1045, some 1000 years after Abraham.

Psalm 68 does indeed appear to echo an attribute of Baal Hadad, and it is not uncommon for biblical texts to make such references. But to infer from that that somehow YHWH must be connected to or even identical to the deity referenced is not the only way to read this. It could also be a kind "polemic" similar to many found in biblical texts.... the sun and moon are "lamps" in Genesis 1, not deities. So this may simply be a kind of swipe by appropriation: it is not Baal who rides the clouds it is YHWH.

By the time most psalms were written the Israelites had been in the "Holy land" for several hundred years, and they had daily contact with people practising other religions. Polytheism was all around, and inviting the Israelites, It would make a lot of things easier. So religious writers used references to other cults usually as a warning. Later, this would take on a life of its own in the literature of the prophets.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by Takeiteasynow »

. So this may simply be a kind of swipe by appropriation: it is not Baal who rides the clouds it is YHWH.
Actually the inscription ''Rider of the Clouds' was found on multiple Ugaritic tablets north of Galilee.

I found more data that could indicate that the rivalry netween Ba'al Hadad and Yahweh is artificial. FOr this we can consult the work of Prof. Herzog of Tel Aviv University. He writes:
Like Baal, Yahweh is a warrior who descends from his mountain-home riding a chariot of clouds. His voice is thunder and his weapon is lightning; the earth quakes and the skies release rain at his command. In primeval times he asserted his authority by defeating the sea, becoming the ruler of the skies.
And about Yahweh's name:
In fact, the name as it usually appears in Judah is YHW, or Yahu, and this is how the community at Elephantine wrote it. In Israel it is found as YH, read either as Yo or Yah.
It was common to add “Yah” or “Yahu” to the end of proper names in ancient Israel and Judah.
And then points out that YHWH was venerated outside Israel:
Among these is the inscription by Sargon II of Assyria dating from 720 BCE that he had captured Ya-ubi’di, king of Hammafh, an Aramean city north of Damascus. Ya-u-bi’di means ” [God] Yah is my help.” Thus Yah was being worshiped outside of Israel and Judah.
An Egyptian list of place names in Edom south of ancient Israel, dating from the reign of Amenhotep III (1417-1379 BCE), includes the name YHW, which would probably read out as Ya-h-wi.
And even much older Akkadian texts from Mesopotamian Mari:
The Amorite city of Mari on the Euphrates also has inscriptions of such personal names as Yahu-Ili meaning “he who brings into existence.” and Yahwi-Haddu meaning "God Haddad causes to be "
So Yahwi is atestted in Mesopotamia, Israel, Syria and the Negev or Edom. Then, since Semitic alphabets did not originally have vowels, the name Yahweh or Ya-h-wi was written, if transliterated into Roman characters, as YHWH. This is the Tetragrammaton, the unspeakable name of God. So this all indicates an sectarian conflict.

As Yahweh shares common attributes with others and equates Hadad in a very early stage it is likely that Yahweh or YHWH is an epithet for the nameless god, like Amurru, Baal, DD, (H)adad, Dagan, Anu, Ba'al Shamin, Ba'al Berith or even ISH.KUR. And this matches the settlement patterns of the Amorites.

I think we do have an almost completed data model. Only Moses is still missing.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Manfred wrote
There is also found in Egypt an inscription about Joseph.... The slab in question, known as Sania 115, dates from 1842 BCE and is on display at Harvard’s Semitic Museum. It identifies Joseph and his two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, and is inscribed with the words “6 Levantines: Hebrews of Bethel, the beloved.”
I have to take the quoted criticism back as it seems that scholar Petrvich has a strong case after all. Before the Hyksos/Amorites arrived a small Semitic or Israelite kingdom existed in the delta of river Nile with its own pharaoh and could have been a period of cultural change for the invading nomads.

Then, three or four generations after the collapse of the Amorite empires of Ishma-el/Ismae'Hadad and Hammurabi in Babylon it is conquered by the Hyksos/Amorites and one of their first rulers is named Yakub-el or Yakub-Hr, introducing lots of new technologies used in Babylon.

Pharaoh Jacob - now who would have thought of that? Just consider the possibilities.... The patriarch saga may well describe actual or historical events subsequently interpreted by a community through its own religious views or experience and one that sees its king as a spiritual leader.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Previously:
There's another promising line of evidence for the Amorites-bring-it-all hypothesis: after the migration form Yemen Mesopotamia starts importing bronze and copper on a industrial scale from Southern Arabia, especially from legendary 'Magan' country in Oman, up to 20 tons per shipload. Until 3000-2800 BC copper was imported from the Caucasus.
The hypothesis that Amorites originate from Yemen is not so strong. The economical, linguistical and religious ties between the Near East and southeastern-Arabia are much stronger. Tribes in eastern Oman worshiped a nameless God venerated with standing pillars or stones at high places, a pattern that can be detected in many places in the Near East. Even the Djed pillars in Egypt, going back to the Predynastic period and originally representing a pole with fertility associations to grain or corn, seems to appear in the same period.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Hi, this is getting a bit confusing... can you do a sort of summary as to what you have concluded so far?
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Hi there, how are you doing today? A bit confusing? It sure it, but that's not our fault. Associate Mr B is now first filtering OT jokes like the renaming of Bab-El/Il - The Gate of God - to Hebrew Babylon 'Confused City' and chasing the development of proto-Hebrew script which seems to match the theological transformation from a single to two holy mountains once starting with the Ziggurat or "holy mountain" in Ur. So it may take a while to create a logical data model. The good news is that its theme is ready!
Selah! By the rivers of Bab-El we sat and wept when we remembered Zion.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Sorry, I did not want to appear ride or anything... it is just we had a lost of posts followed by revisions, so I could if we could have a sort of updated summary? As sort of "so here it is, as I see it now..."
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Sure, problem is there are new revisions as associate B. keeps on pushing. You should know that B's a kind of pit bull - once he bites he never lets go, especially when he suspects that a theory from humanities is faulty. I think this all started after he read some work from Freud.

So he wants more glue and has new material on migration processes related to the climatic changes and social-cultural transformations during the ‘long’ 4th millennium BC.
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

Post by Fernando »

Takeiteasynow wrote:So he wants more glue and has new material on migration processes related to the climatic changes and social-cultural transformations during the ‘long’ 4th millennium BC.
Would that be the desertification of Arabia?
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Re: Abraham's God Was Anu

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Would that be the desertification of Arabia?
Partly. Likely there are two components:

1) Flooding of the Persian Gulf between 6000 and 4000 BC. It's maximum depth of 30 meters is where once the river Euphrates/Tigris flowed to the Oman Sea. It's Semitic population with Proto-Semitic stems was forced to migrate to the shores of what is now known as Persia and Arabia.

2) Extreme droughts between 3800-3500 BC and 3300-3100 BC forcing the shepherd-kings from Elam and the eastern parts of Oman to migrate to the Near East.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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