1627. Shivaji was born at Shivar. [HCIP-VII, 248, 278].
1630 and 1631. Famine in Gujarat and Deccan due to failure of monsoons. This famine was due to failure of rains in 1630 and excessive rain in 1631. People sold their children so that they may live. Migrations took place to the direction of less affected rains, but people died enroute. Hides of cattle and flesh of dogs were eaten, cremated bones of dead were sold with flour and cannibalism became common. Gujarat suffered the most. [Qazwini, Lahori - Shah Jehan Nama, Sadiq Khan etc. HCIP-VII, 735, 519; Factory Records 1630-33 and 1634-36, 403, Mundy, 276.]
1633. Due to famines and uncertain economic conditions, Mughals occupied Daulatabad by bribers and Nizam Shahi’s ruler was imprisoned in Gwaliar fort. Three million people died between 1630-1633 in Gujarat. [HCIP-VII, 208, 444, Factory Records 1630-1633.]
1634. Har Govind the Sikh Guru repulsed Mughals attacks. [HCIP-VII, 312.]
1636. Shahji Bhosle, father of Shivaji entered into service of Bijapur as general. [HCIP-VII, 242, 248.]
1636-37. Punjab had famine [Lahori, II pp. 711-20.]
1640. Heavy rain caused floods and destroyed crops in the Punjab and Kashmir, causing famine [Lahori, II p. 29, 204-5.]
1640-44. Rains failed continuously in many parts of Northern India and famines occurred in Agra province. [Factory Records, 1642-45 p.202.]
1642. Famine occurred due to heavy rain and floods in the Punjab (Moreland, p. 208).
1643. Shahji Bhonsle was summoned to Bijapur court for Shivaji’s misconduct, to which he had neither initiative nor control. Shivaji was a rebel by nature from juvenility. [HCIP-VII, 253.]
1644-1664. Death of Sikh Guru Har Govind Not much is known about two Gurus Har Rai (1644-61) and Har Kishan (1661-64). The last is succeeded by Tegh Bahadur as Sikh Guru. [HCIP-VII, 314, 325, 315.]
1644-1756. Panhwars under Isa, Musa, Daud and Bahauddin, defeated Mughal governor of Sehwan and probably under some agreement with Mughals were appointed local officials to collect taxes and pay the government. The exact arrangement is not known. They seem to have extended their influence and rule upto Kamber, Miro Khan to the north and Sehwan to the south with important centres of power at Ali Khan (now part of Kamber town), Garhi 13 kilometres, north west of Kakar, Shikarpur ( renamed as Khudabad ) 13 kilometres south of Dadu and Samtiani in Sehwan Taluka. A minor or branch canal called Panhwarki from Warah branch of North-Western canal of Sukkur barrage still existing is witness of their influence in Miro Khan and Kamber Talukas. Kalhoras whose centre of activity was Chanduka (foot hills of Kamber and Kahirpur nathan Shah, soon came in conflict with Panhwars and their subcastes Abras, Sangis and Dhamrahas. Kalhoras under Mian Ilyas, Shahel Muhammad and more so under Mian Naseer snatched their lands by use of force with help of their disciples from D.G. Khan area. Kalhoras grabbed their lands and paid no taxes to Mughals. Panhwars let them-selves at the mercy of Mughals to protect them from Kalhoras, leading to further conflicts at local level.1645. Death of Guru Har Govind. (CHI-IV, 245-46].
1646. Shivaji captured Torna. Maharashtra in the beginning of thirteenth century had a series of Bhakti saints, who had standardised Marathi language, aiding in development of extensive religious literature, as had happened in Sindh under Ismaili preachers in eleventh and twelfth centuries. The social structure in Maharashtra was divided into three classes; Brahmans, non-Brahmans and untouchables. Non-Brahmans were virtually treated as untouchables. Peasant group belonging to non Brahmans provided man power for creation of Maratha Empire and they were treated well by Shivaji and his followers. [CHI-VI, 288.].
1646. Shivaji collected around him men of hills of Western Ghats called Mawalis, who were uneducated, backward, uncouth, stupid and ruthless, but brave, and became devoted to him. They were Sudras or untouchable and Shivaji was Brahman and therefore holy. Similar situation existed in the Punjab, where Gurus had achieved status of saints, with Guru Nanak virtually a prophet, though he had never claimed it so. Their followers were farmers and hill people of the northern Punjab. They included both Hindus and Muslims of hills of Punjab. In Sindh Kalhoras were hereditary Sufi, saints, who collected pastoral hill people mostly from Dera Ghazi Khan and some Jatts of the Indus riverain and adjoining areas. The ascendancy of all three is connected with frequent and severe droughts of the Little Ice Age of seventeen and eighteenth centuries, when droughts were frequent and intercepted by heavy rains which too destroyed crops by flooding. The frequent famines diseases, migration in search of food and corruption of Revenue collectors and Toll officers set a chain of dissatisfaction and rebellions, which were exploited by Shivaji, Sikhs and Kalhoras for their ascendancy to power.
1646. Drought in Agra and Ahmedabad; 1647, rain failure in Marwar; 1648, rains fail in Agra (Factory Records 1645-1650).
1647. Rains failed in Marwar, Famines, high mortality, people migrated and depopulation. [Factory Records (1646-1650), 192-93]
1648. Failure of rains in Agra area. [Factory Records (1646-1650), 219.]
1647. Shivaji captured Kondhana (Singarh) and other forts easily, probably due to famine conditions.
1648. Shahji Bhonsle (father of Shivaji) was imprisoned in Bijapur. He worked under Sultans of Ahmed Nagar and after their defeat by Shah Jehan in 1636, joined Adil Shahi kings. His small holdings in Poona district were given to Shivaji (b.1627). [HCIP-VII, 256.]
1648. Shivaji started stamping papers with his own seal. [HCIP-VII, 225.]
1650. Drought in whole India, Dearth of grains existed in Multan province which included Bakhar Sarkar or northern Sindh. To add further to miseries crops were destroyed by loctus. Locuts destroyed crop in Multan Province (Bakhar Sarkar included). [Factory Records 1650-1646-50.]
1651. Heavy floods in Multan Province. [Ruquuat-e-Alamgiri ed Naqvi, 227-8.]
1653. Shivaji built his independent kingdom with ministers, officers, and secretarial staff. [HCIP-VII, 255, 257.]1655. Shivaji treacherously murdered Raja of Jaoli, who was pro-Mughal.
1655. Kharif crops in Deccan damaged by delayed, but heavy rains. [Ruqat-e-Alamgiri 140-414.]
1656. Shivaji conquered many forts and annexed Javali. [HCIP-VII, 242, 256.]1657. Shivaji raided Mughal territories in Ahmad Nagar area and plundered Junnar. [HCIP-VII, 243.]1657. Shivaji raided Ahmad Nagar and Junna districts and looted rich city of Junnar. Aurangzeb routed him, but also pardoned him.
He never trusted him but Shivaji too waited till he gets chance to declare him-self a king. [CHI-IV, 210, 272.]
1657. As Panhwars, Abras Sangis and Dhamrahas paid Mughal government taxes regularly and Kalhoras usurped their lands and paid no taxes, Panhwars, Abras, Sangis and Dhamrahas with help of Mughal governor of Bkhar Khawaja Muhammad Sharif, attacked Kalhoras, whose leader Mian Shahel Muhammad was killed. His head was served by the above local tribes and he is buried without head at Hisbani Taluka Kamber. His tomb was constructed by Ghullam Shah more than a century and a decade later.
1657-58. Chauduka the present Kamber, Larkana, Nasirabad and southern parts of Shahdadkot Talukas, became nucleus for Kalhora operations against Panhwars, Sangis Abras and Dhamrahas. Initially Chandias settled in those areas were opposed to Kalhoras, but once Kalhoras succeeded, Chandias made compromise. Chandias were settled in this area since long time and possibly going back to Soomra era. They supported Sindh tribes in struggle against Mughals. [Mazahar Shah Jehani], [SSF ]
1658. Aurangzeb after defeating his brothers Dara and Shuja, imprisoned his father and coronated himself as Emperor of India.
1658-1662. Failure of rains in whole India and famines every where. (Factory Records).
1659, 1660, 1663. Drought in Gujarat and famine (Factory Records).1659. Dara the eldest brother of Aurangzeb killed under a fatwa of Ulmahs, that he was heretic. [CHI-IV, 227, HCIP-VII, 223.]1659. Shivaji treacherously murdered Afzal Khan. [HCIP-VII, 258.]
1659-60. Famines and plague swept away most parts of Sindh [Factory Records 1655-60, 210 and 307 foot note.]
1659, 1660 and 1663. Drought in Gujarat. [Factory Records (1661-64) 320-22.]
1660. There were 13 major famines from 1614-1660 i.e one every 3 ½ years.1661. Execution of Murad brother of Aurangzeb, who was a prisoner at Gawaliar, on the charges of using drugs and wines, both considered un-Islamic. [CHI-IV, 228; HCIP-VII, 223.]
1660-1700. Peak of the Little Ice Age. Revenue from Thatta Sarkar in 1665 fell to one fifth what it was in 1600. Temperatures had dropped by 0.82°C, as compared to 1600, which were already low compared to 1950. 1661-1664. Har Rai Guru since 1644 died in 1661 and Harikrishen becomes Guru.
They were grandson of and great grand son of Har Gobind. Hari Krishen died of small pox and before his death nominated Baba Bakale his grand uncle Tegh Bahadur (1621-1675) as Guru. [HS p.70; HCIP-VII, 315.]
1662. Due to drought Manchu (now a Chinese province invaded China ending Ming dynasty.
1662-63. Famine in Dacca was attributed to heavy burden of zakat, oppression of Rahdars (officers incharge of routes) and exaction of chowkidars (men posted at Chaukis or Tolls and Guard Stations) and consequently affecting mobility of merchants to bring grain to city. (Ifran Habib p.67-68).1663. Shivaji raided Poona. [CHI-IV, 257;1663. Shivaji attacked Mughal Viceroy of Deccan Shaista Khan at Poona at mid night, wounding him. His son, six women of his harem and forty attendants were killed and eight women of his harem and other sons wounded. [HCIP-VII, 243.]
1664. Mughal expedition under Mirza Raja Jay Singh and Dilir Khan, left Agra to subdue Shivaji. [HCIP-VII, 261.]1664. Rich port of Surat was plundered by Shivaji. [HCIP-VII, 243, 260.]1664. Shivaji attacked Surat and plundered it, though English, Dutch and French factories successfully defended themselves. He also called himself a king. [CHI-IV, 273; HCIP-VII, 260, 243.]
1665. Jai Singh defeated Shivaji and 1665 and the latter concluded peace with Mughals and joined Mughal in campaign against Bijapur
1664-1675. Guru Tegh Bahadur, youngest son of Har Gobind around him collected lot of Jat farmers and some Muslims. He was summoned to Delhi and given option of accepting Islam or death. He was beheaded in November 1675. It is possible that during the years 1674-75 Mian Nasir Kalhora was called to Delhi and under some conditions released. Subsequently he renewed his activities of usurping land of people who were paying taxes to Mughals and brought Mughal expeditions against him. To him these local people were traitors for paying taxes to Mughals and opposing him. To the Mughals he was a traitor for capturing lands of peaceful cultivators, who were paying them taxes. The tragedy was that the Mughals were not able to protect their clients and would make compromises with Kalhoras, whenever they could not control the latter. Such acts were repeated in case of Pathans, Sikhs and Marathas in the same era of Aurangzeb’s rule of empire. The locals were trusting the Mughal inspite of their failure to protect the zamindars and farmers. [Nijjar I, 92, 93;
. He visited Agra in May 1666 and then escaped, as he felt humiliated by assignment of “Panch Hazari”, or incharge of 5,000 soldiers, but was virtually in confinement at Agr fort. [CHI-IV, 258, HCIP-VII, 244, 262, 264.]
1665. Shivaji sent an expedition to Malabar coast with a number of ships and plundered many towns and ports including Basur. [HCIP-VII, 261.]
1666 November. Shivaji who escaped in 1665, reached home from Agra, via Muttra, Allahabad, Benares, Gaya and Telingana. For next three years he remained peaceful and through mediation of Jasvant Singh and prince Shah Alam. He was given title of Raja. [HCIP-VII, 244, 264, 279, 280.]
1666. There was severe drought in England, that when in September fire broke out in London, even stones became combustible due to dry air. [Lamb H.H, 131.]1666-1708. Gobind Singh had converted a large number undisciplined peasants into enthusiastic soldiers animated with religious fervent by incurring them to warfare and moulding them into distinct community of Khalsas as Shivaji had done to his peasants. Kalhoras had done the same to D.G. Khan’s nomadic pastorals and also to southern Punjab’s peasants settled mostly in riverain areas and had called them “Fakirs”. [HCIP-VII, 568.]
1667. Rebellion of Yusufzais. [CHI-IV, 238.]
1668. Aurangzeb promulgated strict religious laws and ordinances against non-Muslims, which lead to large scale rebellions in Hindu majority areas hence forth. Some such laws were hardly Islamic. [HI-IV, 230, HCIP-VII, 235.]
1668. Muhabat Khan was appointed governor of Kabul. He was instrumental in release of Khushal Khan. It was because of Yusufzais’ starting rebellion in Sarhad, but Khushal Khan like Shivaji and Kalhoras, no longer trusted Mughals.1668-1669. The Jats under their leader Gokla rebelled against religious persecution of Hindus; namely; custom duty on Hindu merchants and not Muslims, prohibition of Hindu religious fairs, pulling down Kashi and Keshab Rai temples, imposing of Jizya etc. [HCIP-VII, 236, 379, 265.]
1669. Khushal Khan’s great grand father, grand father and father were killed in wars with Yusufzais in Khyber. Akbar got possession of Kandhar in 1595, Jehangir lost it in 1622 to Shah Abbas, Shah Jehan regained it in 1638 and lost it in 1649 for ever. For possession of Kandhar Aurangzeb needed Pathans of NWFP. Khushal Khan speaks highly of Jehangir. He was fourteen years old when the latter died 1628. He served Shah Jehan personally and admires him as “Qadrdan”. His father was killed while fighting Yusufzais and Shah Jehan confirmed Khushal as Khatak Chief and King’s guardian of highway to Peshawar. He took part in various Mughal campaigns in Kangro, Balkh and Badakhshan. These gave him distinction as well as training in warfare. Opposition to Mughals was by Yusufzais since Akbar’s time and some part of latter’s area was given to Khushal Khan as Jagir. Yusufzais, went to Delhi met Dara, who managed pardon of emperor Shah Jehan and Yusufzais’ area given to Khushal Khan was restored back to the former’s. Being annoyed Khushal Khan blocked passage of Dara to Yusufzais’ Samoh, during war of succession in 1658. Aurangzeb having been grateful confirmed him in his position as Chief. Khushal Khan’s family was collecting Attock toll tax, but Yusufzais’ through Governor of Kabul had it abolished as relief to common man and consequently Khushal Khan was badly hit by it. In 1664 Khushal Khan under influence of Governor of Kabul and his Deputy Governor of Peshawar was summoned by latter and sent in chains to Delhi. He spent some years in Ranthambhor fort, where from after two years, he was released to advise Aurangzeb on Frontier affairs in 1668. In 1972 Amin Khan the governor of Kabul left Delhi for Kabul via Kotal (now Landhi Kotal), but save a dozen people rest of his 40,000 persons were killed by Pathan tribesmen. Mughals retaliated and sought Khushal Khan’s help, but he refused on the ground that the former’s had gone against their word time and again and went to fight Mughals. In brief inspite of Khushal Khan’s twenty years service to Mughal emperor and his accepting royal orders of withdrawal of toll tax at Attock, he did not rebel. When he was taken in chains to Delhi in 1664, two years prison at Rantambore fortress and then under house arrest for another two years until 1668, he no longer trusted the Mughals. [Pathans, 212, 221.]
1669. First Yusufzais in 1669 and then Afridis rose in rebellion against Mughals in 1672 and Auranzeb had to move to Peshawar in 1674 for a year and half to supervise military operations combined with diplomacy, to buy Pathan tribes with gold. He succeeded, but principled Khushal Khan Khattak kept fighting as Mughals had proved to be unreliable in his case. [CHI-IV, 238; Pathans, 220, 231-32, 241.]
1669. Great tension between Hindus and Mughals, when Aurangzseb ordered destruction of Hindu temples. [CHI-IV, 241.]
1670. Shivaji attacked Surat a second time carrying away large booty and ruining the trade of largest port of whole India. He then raided Mughal provinces of Baglan, Khandesh, Berar and many forts in Chandor range, as well as Salher and his raids continued. He imposed Chauth or one forth of land revenue collected by Mughals and forcibly recovered from officials. He also occupied Ram Nagar and Jawhar, south of Surat. [CHI-IV, 258; HCIP-VII, 245, 265]
1670. Drought in Bihar and famine from Banares to Rajmahal. People in Patna sold their children. Some 90,000 deaths occurred in Patna and many towns were depopulated. [Arfan Habib, Agrarian System 197.]
1672. Death of Ali Ail Shah II of Bijapur, wherein Shivaji occupied many areas due to war of succession among the claimants.
1672. Satnamis revolted against religious persecution under Aurangzaeb’s orders. [HCIP-VII, 236.]
1673. Shivaji sacked Hagli collecting lot of wealth and captured Panhala. [CHI-IV, 275; HCIP-VII, 266.]
1674. Due to confusion caused in Mughal empire, Shivaji had himself coronated as Chihatara (emperor) on 16-06-1674 and conquered vast areas in Carnatic and Mysore. It was time when Pathan rebellions too was at its peak. It began with rising in Khyber when Afridi Chief Akmal Khan, crowned himself as a king. Amin Khan governor of Afghanistan since 1670, attacked Afridis, but the latter cut of his water supply. Pathans under Akmal Khan descended from hills, 10,000 Mughal’s men were slain. Governor’s mother, wife and daughter were made captive. Akmal was joined by Khushal Khan. Aurangzeb with Mian Mughal camped at Hasan Abdal to set right the Pathans for next 18 months, jointly by diplomacy buying some tribal heads with gold and fighting others, and crushing Ghorai, Ghizahi, Shirazi and Yusufzais. Among those whom he won was Khushal Khan’s son, while the father was waging war against Mughals. Aurangzeb left Hasan Abdal after eighteen months in December 1675. It appears that at this juncture Mir Yaqub governor of Bakhar (1670-1675), who had arrested Mian Naseer Kalhora, on complaints of local tribes and possibly took him to Aurangzeb in Agra, but the latter seems to have released him under some promises and conditions though the exact date of release and conditions of compromise are not known. [CHI-IV, 259, 275; HCIP-VII, 245; Pathans, 236, 239, 298, 419.]
1675 December. Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru was executed, under orders of Aurangzeb and this resulted into serious uprisings of Sikhs there after. [CHI, IV, 24; HCIP-VII, 316, 237; Nijjar-I, 92-93.]
1675-1708 Guru Gobind Singh. He had example of Shivaji before him and revolt against Mughals throughout India due to famines, floods, insecurity and corruption of officials and he turned his attention to down trodden masses. His sermon was to fight against tyranny and help poor and protect the weak. He called his followers Khalsas, who were supposed to fight against tyrany and oppression. He was killed by two Pathan boys reportedly under instructions of Yazir Khan governor of Sirhind, against whom he wanted to report to Aurangzeb in South India at the latter’s invitation, in 1705, but was in Rajasthan, when he heard news of Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. Vazir Khan then avenged on Gobind Singh in 1708. [HCIP, 316, 665, 233, 326; Nijjar-I, 94-100.]
1676. Mugul’s unsuccessful expedition against Shiah Kingdom of Bijapur.
1677. Shivaji conquered Carnatic and part of Mysore and also Gingee, Vellore due to absence of main Mughal army to subdue Pathans in Khyber and also experienced soldiers and generals These areas then easily fell to Shivaji. [CHI-IV, 259, 276, HCIP-VII, 245, 478.]
1678. New Bijapur’s regent Sidi Masuad, made a pact with Shivaji for armed assistance in case of Mughal attack and such assistance was given by the Marathas, during an attack on Bijapur in 1679 by Mughal commander Dilwar Khan and it lead to Mughal failure.
1678-1707. Rebellion in Marwar, followed by truce upto 1687-1696, fights against Mughals in 1696-1701, truce 1701-1707 and renewal of struggle 1707, when Marwar became independent. This was a major setback to Mughals caused by Rajputs, who hence forth also played role in down fall of Mughal Empire. [HCIP-VII, 346.]
1679. Aurangzeb left for Ajmer to suppress Marwar rebellion and also to Rajasthan to subdue Rathors who had raised rebellion. [CHI-IV, 248.]
1679. Aurangzeb reimposed Jizya tax on non-Muslims. [CHI-IV, 242; HCIP-VII, 235, 273.]
1679. Nawab Mir Muhammad Akram, last Mughal governor of Bakhar upto 1680. Then they sent no governor as local tribes under some kind of contract had under taken to collect and pay taxes to the Mughals. [Tuhfatul Kiram Persian.]
1679-91. Kalhoras under Mian Nasir captured territories of Panhwars, then the Mughal Subedars of Kambar, Nasirabad Mehar and Khairpur Nathan Shah Talukas with their capital at Gharhi. It seems that Panhwars of Ali Khan (Kambar), Garhi, Shikarpur (Khudabad) and Samtani, were petty chiefs and they probably did not try to put up joint resistance to Kalhora and so were defeated one by one.
1679. Shivaji defeated joint forces of English and Sidi naval fleets. [HCIP-VII, 362.]
1679-80. Rajputs revolted against religious discrimination of Aurangzeb, but not all, not even most Rajput princes participated in the revolt, as many Rajput contingents served Aurangzeb in Deccan. After Aurangzeb death these policies of Aurangzeb were reversed and Jizya abolished.1680. Shivaji died of dysentery and was succeeded by his son Shambhuji,
who also kept fighting Mughals. [CHI, 259, 278, 279; HCIP-VII, 245, 270.]