Origins of Islam examined

Prove Islam is from God, why it is the 'One True Religion'.
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pr126
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Origins of Islam examined

Post by pr126 »

Examining the Newest Historical Research on Islam and the Earliest Quranic Manuscripts - Jay Smith

Published on Dec 22, 2016

With so much of the world focused on ISIS these days, a group which uses and is absolutely dependent on the Qur'an and their prophet Muhammad for their authority, it is important to look at just how authoritative they both are historically. I will look at the newest data we have on Muhammad, as well as the Qur'anic manuscript evidence, including a look at the 6 earliest Manuscripts, and the new Qur'anic folios which are being dated using Carbon 14 dating (including the Birmingham folios highlighted by BBC in July 2015), which suggest that Qur'anic Suras are not only older than the Qur'an, but older than Muhammad and Islam as well! I will compare these with our Biblical material to show just how much more historical evidence we have for our Bible and Jesus Christ, than exists for their Qur'an and Muhammad.
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Fernando »

Thanks very much, pr. For once, I sat through a long video straight way!
For anyone in a hurry, there's nothing much new before about 40mins in, apart from a bit more about Petra than I'd seen before. The good stuff starts at about 45mins and gets hot at about 1 hour. Preaching begins at 1hr 4mins.
Want to save even more time?:
Spoiler! :
New information is that the famous Tokapi, Samarkand etc mss have finally been examined by (Muslim) experts and been found to be more recent than claimed and to have numerous alterations. The really new stuff is that several Saana "Koranic" fragments have been repeatedly radiocarbon dated by multiple labs and may well be pre-Koranic. He suggests that they are some of the sources from which the Koran was borrowed. He says that at the time of the video (uploaded 22 Dec 2016) these datings were unpublished.
‘Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.’ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

I will look at the newest data we have on Muhammad, as well as the Qur'anic manuscript evidence, including a look at the 6 earliest Manuscripts, and the new Qur'anic folios which are being dated using Carbon 14 dating (including the Birmingham folios highlighted by BBC in July 2015), which suggest that Qur'anic Suras are not only older than the Qur'an, but older than Muhammad and Islam as well!
Jay Smith has updated his material after Elizabeth Puin (wife of Gerd Puin) published her latest research.

The 6 Earliest Manuscripts of the Qur’an, Topkapi, Samarkand, Ma’il, Petropolitanus, Husseini, Sana’a (upper text) all date from the 8th or even the 9th centuries, are incomplete, do not match with other early versions and none of them agree completely with the 1924 Hafs canocial text used today.

1. Sana'a manuscripts
By far the most interesting manuscript is that of Sana'a, found in 1975. This manuscript or Palimpsest has two layers: a lower text that was erased, rubbed out, corrected or overwritten between 671 and 705 AD for a new version. The lower layer, which has only 63 verses, has 70 differences with any known variant of the 9th century and the upper text has further variants. The lower text is believed to have been written sometime between 632-669 CE, as the parchment of the Stanford folio has been radiocarbon dated with 95% accuracy to before 669 CE, and 75% probability from before 646 CE.

2. Carbon dating reports on the Sana'a collection
Carbon Dating research which was carried out on 9 separate folios of the Sana’a collections by at 4 different laboratories, including Lyon (France), Kiel (Germany), Zürich (Switzerland), and Oxford (England).

Results for Sana'a A samples with 95% probability ranges - Other samples (Sanaa B, C, D, E) all pre-date the Uthmanic recension.

Lyon: circa 380-540 AD
Kiel: circa 400-460 AD
Zurich: 475 - 550 AD
Oxford: 500 - 550 AD

The RC14 dating of the Sana’a A, B, C, D and Birmingham folios suggest that these texts are much earlier than was previously considered. All folios )parchment) predate the official codification of the Quran (652) by either years or centuries.

Conclusions:
1) The 2 Layers of the Sana’a ms prove that men created a nascent Qur’an in the 7th century
2) The 4 Carbon dated Lab reports prove that men borrowed stories created long before the Qur’an

With the work of Elizabeth Puin (tracking of textual changes) it may be possible to relate the lower text of the Sana'a manuscript to older sources that describe a "great unjust" done in the area of Sana'a preceding the birth of Muhammad. After all, the carbon dating reports on the Sana'a collection tell us that the parchments used are much older (centuries older) than those of for instance Topkapi and Samarkand.

The sources used for the Quran imply that originally a Yemenite story was used. So what was this great unjust and how did it connect to Muhammad?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Fernando
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Fernando »

Thanks, takeiteasynow.
One excuse made to get round radiocarbon datings of parchment is that the material was for some reason stashed away for ages before anyone got round to writing on it. Has there been any academic debunking of this argument?
‘Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.’ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

One excuse made to get round radiocarbon datings of parchment is that the material was for some reason stashed away for ages before anyone got round to writing on it. Has there been any academic debunking of this argument?
Not that I know of. In his updated presentation from May 2018 Jay Smith argues that parchments were too costly to be stashed away.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Fernando
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Fernando »

Yes, I've seen that argument. ISTR Ibn Rushd knows quite a lot about the history of parchment and papyrus, but it's too late at the moment for me to search her posts to see if there's anything about that aspect.
‘Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.’ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Actually you can also learn a lot of what is written on these papyri:)

This book of Petra Sijpesteijn, Shaping a Muslim State: the World of a Mid-Eighth-Century Egyptian Official, reveals more on how early Muslims or Saracens used papyri but its content is even far more revealing. This book is an accessible history of the formation of Islam and the first hundred years of Muslim rule in Egypt and and centers around a corpus of previously unknown Arabic papyrus letters, dating from between AD 730 and 750. I have researched this book to find more proof for Dan Gibson's Qibla theory but (as always) got unexpected results.

This corpus:
  • 1) shows a lack of proof that the Umayyad empire ever expanded beyond Egypt.
  • 2) makes me wonder if Egypt was even part of this empire during the first 50 years of "Islamic reign". The ground plans of early 'mosques', for instance from Fusta, were directed towards Hegra. Arab forces asked Umar permission for the conquest of Egypt as it is was undefended.The name Umar is only attested in inscriptions around Hegra, apparently the leader of regional tribal alliance.
  • 3) lacks any proof for a centralized religious authority, practice, tradition or protocol that provided instructions on how to build mosques or the direction of prayer.
As a consequence Dan Gibson's theory can only be attested and validated in the heartlands of Syria, confirmed by the change of the qibla in open mosques, Negev desert.






-
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

The sample folios from the Sanaa manusscript were, as far as I understood, all taken from the same manuscript page. So for sample A the parchment was made no later then the year 550 and probably between 475 and 550. It would be most interesting to see which material (numbered verses were only introduced in the 9th century) was written down on this single manuscript page. Unfortunately I can't find any information here.

Now the parchment of the Birmingham fragment leaves are dated between 568 and 645 A.D and originates from Yemen. This makes sura 34, about Saba, very important. Because if all fragments predate the Uthman codification by decades or even centuries events described in this sura can only relate to Yemenite events from the late fifth or early 6th century. If so, the traditional classification of verses (Mecca versus Medina) would become meaningless. Basically to prove that the Quran was first codified in Yemen is to match these Quranic events with events from the Himyarite calendar and then validate them against the the carbon dating results.

Afterwards there would be a single challenge left: if the Quran was first 'codified' or 'redacted' in Yemen then how do you explain its second century versions of Syriac tales? Well that's maybe not that difficult. Suppose that some - but not all - proto-Himyarite Jews migrate, starting in the second century, from the southern borders of Nabataea to Yemen after the Romans conquer most Nabataean cities. Genetic research shows that these regions are related.

These Jews take along their stories and traditions but have no holy book. When the Aksum and Byzantine Christians start evangelizing they feel threatened, and feel the need to have some kind of holey scripture for themselves. This awareness is demonstrated by David Wood in this excellent video:

This theory would be flawless if most of these Quranic verses and surah 34 would be part of the underlying Palimpsest fragments. And finally, when the Himyarites migrate to Greater Syria after decades of war and disasters this proto-Quran is taken along and hooks up with Benjamin of Tiberias or Muhammad.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Ibn Rushd »

Wow this is so interesting!
There is no Master but the Master, and QT-1 is his Prophet.

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Indeed. But not only interesting, also very promising.

Recent research shows that Messianic literature was central to the Himyarite Jews from Yemen. Even better: Messiah Ben Joseph (messenger of the End of Times) was also a military savior expected by Yemenite Jews and is associated in Yemenite folk-lore with Dhu Nawas, a semi-legendary 6th century Yemenite king.

Messiah Ben Joseph
So why is this important? The figure Messiah Ben Joseph is not only part of classical Rabbanic literature but plays a significant role the Book of Zerubbabel or the Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, a medieval Hebrew apocalypse written at the beginning of the 7th century. This is additional proof for Yemenite migration as this figure wasn't mentioned for centuries after a stone tablet, called Gabriel's Revelation, with 87 lines of Hebrew text written in ink, containing a collection of short prophecies written in the first person which was dated to the late 1st century AD or early first century BC.


So when the Himyarite Jews migrated from southern Edom/Nabataea at the end of the first century they took the legend of Messiah Ben Joseph along to Yemen and reintroduced him in Greater Syria during the first half of the seventh century. Now this probably matches with the figure of Dhul-Qarnayn from Surah 18, Al Kahf.

And there seems to be a cluster of Yemenite surahs which are not only part of the Sana'a palimpsest but also contains versions of second century tales or views:
- Christian folktale of the "People of the Cave
- References to Messiah Ben Joseph or Dhul-Qarnayn
- Moses
- Ten Commandments

Note 1: some scholars describe tablet Gabriel's Revelation as a forgery. If so the introduction of the Jewish apocalyptic figure of Messiah Ben Joseph in the Near East is a pure Yemenite thing and part of isolated Jewish developments in Yemen between the second and sixth century AD.

Note 2:Proposed cluster of Yemenite surah's:
1) Al Fātiḥah
2) Al-An'am
3) Al-Kahf
4) Fatir
5) Saba
6) Most likely surah 55, Ar-Rahman, is also part of this cluster. Ar-Rahman or 'The Most Beneficent' or 'The Most Merciful' was the honorary title of the Himyarite Jews in Yemen.

Wasserstrom, Steven M. (2014). Between Muslim and Jew: The Problem of Symbiosis Under Early Islam. Princeton University Press.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

A fellow researcher proposes this extreme revisionist data model for the canonical development of the Quran

Quran = holy book of Himyarite Jews from Yemen.

Canonical development
  • 500-550: Yemenite surah's center around the Messianic figure of Messiah Ben David, inspired by the historical figure of Dhu Nawas.
  • 550-650: Most but not all Himyarite Jews migrate or return to Edom - no developments
  • 650-670: Oldest Quranic surah's are adjusted for the Messianic figure Messiah ben Jospeh aka Benjamin of Tiberias as shown in the underlying layer of the Sana'a palimpsest.
  • 680-800: Quranic surah's are adjusted so the Messiah ben Joseph becomes the Arabic Muhammad
For your better understanding:
Jewish eschatology: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_eschatology" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Messiah ben David: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messiah_in_Judaism" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Messiah ben Jospeh: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messiah_ben_Joseph" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Dhu Nawas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dhu_Nuwas" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Benjamin of Tiberias: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_of_Tiberias" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Fernando
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Fernando »

Thanks, Takeiteasynow - just in time for a quiet Sunay on Wikipedia with no distractions.
‘Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.’ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Well.... there's much better material out there but I was too lazy to specify a list of journals and explain how they relate. If you have more quiet Sundays planned I could forward some research that needs to be reviewed - for instance a draft article on the original location of the Kaaba?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Fernando
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Fernando »

Takeiteasynow wrote:Well.... there's much better material out there but I was too lazy to specify a list of journals and explain how they relate. If you have more quiet Sundays planned I could forward some research that needs to be reviewed - for instance a draft article on the original location of the Kaaba?
Thanks, but my Sunday turned out not very quiet after all, so I'll stick to Wikipedia when I get a minute. Although I'm interested in the subject, I don't know enough to be a worthy reviewer, I'm afraid, but thanks anyway.
‘Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literary traditions. They neither intermarry nor eat together, and indeed they belong to two different civilisations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.’ Muhammad Ali Jinnah

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

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An interesting new paper provides strong evidence for the hypothesis that Nabataean Arabic supplied the linguistic variety of the Qur’an.

On the Origin of Quranic Arabic
Arthur Jeffery Centre for the Study of Islam
Melbourne School of Theology

Abstract
Previous research into the origins of the dialect of Arabic which provided the standard for the Quranic consonantal text has thrown up two puzzles: a puzzle from above, and a puzzle from below. The puzzle from above is that the Muslim philologists who searched earnestly for the Quranic dialect were unable to identify any of the dialects known to them as the source of Quranic Arabic. The puzzle from below is why, among the many thousands of pre-Quranic ancient Arabic inscriptions, spread over a vast region, there are so few inscriptions which could reflect a precursor to Quranic Arabic. The solution to both puzzles, it is argued, is that Quranic Arabic, as reflected in its rasm, or consonantal skeleton, developed directly from the Arabic of the Nabataeans. The solution to the puzzle from below is that the Nabataeans left many inscriptions, but in their preferred written language, Aramaic, not their mother tongue Arabic. The solution to the puzzle from above is that the Muslim philologists were looking for a Bedouin source for the Quranic text, but Nabataean Arabic’s linguistic legacy was to be found in dialects spoken by peasants in the Southern Levant. Recent research by Al-Jallad has documented pre-conquest Southern Levantine Arabic dialects in the Nabataean direct sphere of influence. These findings confirm the hypothesis that the Nabataean Arabic supplied the linguistic variety of the Qur’an.

Conclusion
The evidence put forward here here suggests that the Arabic in which the Quran was recited and written was Nabataean. The Nabataean variety, it is suggested, would have been widely understood throughout the Arabic speaking region because of Nabataean trade networks. It was not considered to be a different language from local Bedouin dialects, but a ‘clear’ form of Arabic. A tradition of court poetry, probably based on the Nabataean variety, had already developed in the pre-Islamic period, no doubt influenced by the former Nabataean city of Bosra, which became the capital of Arabia Petrae.

This explains why Muslim grammarians identified the poetic koiné as the same variety as Qur’anic Arabic. Later, in the process of standardising the recitation of the Quran other dialect features were overlaid upon the rasm of the Quran and marked by diacritics, including case endings, and the consonantal assimilation of the definitive article, which were not features of the dialect in which the Quran was originally written.

This model of the source of Quranic Arabic accounts for the evidence of pre-Islamic epigraphy, as well the testimony of the Muslim philologists who standardized classical Arabic. It resolves the puzzle from below, as well as the puzzle from above. It also accords with the linguistic evidence, that Nabataean Arabic aligns with the linguistic variety attested in the rasm of the Quran.

The solution to the puzzle from below is that epigraphic evidence of a precursor to classical Arabic appears so rarely in inscriptions because the Nabataeans who spoke the precursor variety preferred to write in Aramaic (and for a time, in Greek). The solution to the puzzle from above is it proved impossible for early Muslim philologists to locate the source dialect for Quranic Arabic among the various Bedouin tribes where they sought it, because Nabatean Arabic was not a Bedouin variety.

In any case, Petra was no more, Nabataean identity had dissipated, and Nabataean Arabic was no longer the distinctive variety of any particular tribe, but had become the linguistic inheritance of peasants in the Southern Levant, and, in the poetic koiné, the common property of the Arabs.

Source
https://www.academia.edu/37743814/On_the_Origin_of_Qur%CA%BE%C4%81nic_Arabic

Splendid! Now we should research if the Nabataean script had a special role in the Arabic religious world - and how did in end up in Yemen?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

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An important new discovery from 2019: the equation of the North Arabian monotheistic god Allāh and the South Arabian RaHmān already in the pre-Islamic period.

The following inscription from Yemen shows a A pre-Islamic variant of the monotheistic basmala in the Zabur script. The first line says: bsmlh rHmn rHmn rb smwt بسم له رحمن رحمن رب سموت

Image

The second line is very difficult to decipher but contains the words رزقن and إيمن. The text confirms the equation of the North Arabian monotheistic god Allāh and the South Arabian RaHmān already in the pre-Islamic period. RaHmān has his own chapter in the Quran.

This is a Himyarite inscription and thus Jewish - Jewish influence was very strong in southern Arabia in the 6th c. CE. This inscription is strong and direct evidence for Himyarite Judaism originating in Nabataea and that is preciously what we need to explain the topics and structure of the Quran.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by manfred »

This does not surprise me at all. And we know of a strong Jewish presence in Yemen which explains the influence. But how would you relate this to you Petra hypothesis? At least on the face of it, it seems to be saying that Allah does belong to Arabia, not the Levant, as such.
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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

It may come as no surprise but this inscription is one of the few that delivers direct evidence. Another inscription found this year contains also a pre-Islamic variant of the monotheistic basmala but it still heavily debated.

How it relates to Petra? Well this thread debates the origin of the Quran but still:
- According to the Mishna the citizens of Petra (Reqem) converted to Judaism in the third or second century BC. This would place a portion of Nabataea in the monotheistic tradition as inscriptions from Hegra describe two religious fractions centered at Petra, dedicated to Allat and Dushura - the 'one from Seir' or the 'One from sacred precinct' and mentioned as the 'God of the House'.
- The cursive Nabatean script is that of the Quran. The oldest known Quranic fragments date from Yemen and use this type of script.
- Nabataean Arabic supplied the linguistic variety of the Qur’an.
- The pre-Islamic Haij was centered at Petra.



So this can be seen as an attempt to bundle the entire Arab Jewish religious tradition in a single book - undoubtedly this process started after Himyarite Jews migrated to Jordan which can be proven by the introduction of South Arabian linguistic features in the Petraean and Nessana papyri such as new sets of onomastica in the first half of the seventh century.

And this leads to the following step: linking he Himyarite migration to the hadith which mentions 'migrants' arriving at Mina or Wadi Musa.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Manfred wrote At least on the face of it, it seems to be saying that Allah does belong to Arabia, not the Levant, as such.
New translated Safaitic inscriptions from Jordan describe the oneness of God with Safaitic root hd. That matches with Qur’an 112 naming Allāh as the ‘One’: qul huwa llāhu ʾaḥ ad, which gave rise to the divine epithet: al-ʾaḥadu meaning ‘the One’.

Countless Safaitic inscriptions name Allāh using root lh without ever mentioning a specific polytheistic context -besides the other supreme deity Allāt (lt) of course.

This pattern is consistent for the entire Arab portion Levant at the beginning of the sixth century and starts to change when Himyarite Jews migrate to Jordan.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: Origins of Islam examined

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Vocative form of Allah

In some Hismaic texts an -m is suffixed to the divine names Lh (Allāh) and Lt (Allāt) in invocations, thus h lh-m, h lt-m (King 1990:80). This is probably an asseverative particle which may be compared with the -mma in Arabic allahumma (sometimes ya allahumma).

Now Allāhumma (اللَّهُمَّ) is a vocative form of Allah, the Islamic and Arabic term for one God. It is often translated as 'O Allāh' and is seen as the equivalent of 'Yā Allāh'. The vocative form Allāhumma is attested in the Hismaic inscription Jackobson D.3.A.7.b where the author invokes Allāh to curse the sons of ʿuray son of ʿaklam: hāllāhumma le-banī ʿoray ben ʿaklam boʾsa’!

Image
Inscription Jackobson D.3.A.7.b with a vocative form of Allah

So besides a Safaitic inscription describing the oneness of God with Semitic root hd leading to Alla's epithet al-ʾaḥadu there are also expressions of Allah's oneness in Hismaic script. Both Hismaic and Safaitic script can be found in the vicinity of Petra.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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