nice to meet you and welcome to the forum.
So, you like history and the Qur'an... interesting! I hope you stay a while.
I have just watched a rather gruesome programme on TV about the history of executions... so this bit came to mind:
The Pharaoh at the time of Moses says:
I will certainly cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, then will I crucify you all together. [Surah 7:124]
and also here:
Said he: You believe in him before I give you permission; most surely he is the chief of you who taught you the magic, so you shall know: certainly I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and certainly I will crucify you all. [Surah 26:49]
And in connection with the story of Joseph we find in the Qur'an:
O my two mates of the prison! as for one of you, he shall give his lord to drink wine; and as for the other, he shall be crucified, so that the birds shall eat from his head, the matter is decreed concerning which you inquired. [Surah 12:41]
Do you find anything odd about this? I mean, from a historian's point of view?
Well, here is one of several problems in that connection:
Crucifixion was in use at a comparatively high rate among the Seleucids, Carthaginians, and Romans from about the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD. In the year 337, Emperor Constantine I abolished it in the Roman Empire out of veneration for Jesus Christ, the most famous victim of crucifixion.
Moses lived about 1400 BC, and Joseph would be about 300 years or so before then...so crucifixion was not used for another 800 years... so how did the pharaoh and Joseph know about it? I mean it's like saying Mohammed had an i-phone...
And there pharaoh used the same punishment as Mohammed, alternate amputation? Are there any sources to support that?
And sticking with Pharaoh:
Pharaoh said: "O Chiefs! no god do I know for you but myself: therefore, O Haman! light me a (kiln to bake bricks) out of clay, and build me a lofty palace, that I may mount up to the god of Moses: but as far as I am concerned, I think (Moses) is a liar!" [Qur'an 28:38]
Pharaoh said: "O Haman! Build me a lofty palace, that I may attain the ways and means- "The ways and means of (reaching) the heavens, and that I may mount up to the god of Moses: But as far as I am concerned, I think (Moses) is a liar!" [Qur'an 40:36-37]
We know exactly how Egyptians used to make bricks, you can find the same technique used to this day: Mud is mixed with straw and left in the sun to dry. The rarity of rain makes any further treatment unnecessary. Making bricks in a kiln belongs to other cultures, like the Romans, not the Egyptians.
And where is the thing that Haman built? Being really lofty, there must be a foundation?
Also, the bible has Haman in the book of Esther to be the vizier of Artaxerxes II or possibly some other Persian king, and the lofty thing he built for him was, well, a gallows. So how is the bible similar yet so different?
When you have two texts telling similar stories, but with variations, would you not agree that the older is the more authentic one, unless there is a very good reason to assume otherwise?
Can you tell us?