The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

Shari'a, errancies, miracles and science
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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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The Himyarite religion was either a hybrid of syncretic form of Abrahamic religion or represents a tradition that has not been described or recognized as such.
The missing tradition is those of "s'b Ysr'l" or the 'People of Israel'. Modern archaeology has determined the historicity of the religious narrative is impossible with many scholars viewing the stories as inspiring national myth narratives with little historical value. Unfortunately for those scholars the epigraphical record indicate that the 'Israelites' established many communicates in the Near East and do not refer to a specific group of people but to groups that share religious traditions.

The new hypothesis is that the "People who see God" - ʾyš (man) rʾh (to see/meet) ʾil (God) - are a subset of the ancient Amorites* and ancestral to Judaism, Christianity and Islam making all Abrahamic religions Israelite religions. Other Israelite religions include for instance Mandaeanism.

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*Ancient Semitic tribal culture with a nameless god (dd) - the story of god starts with god.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Inscription from Himyar, July 523, associating either Muhammad or the Praised One with the Lord of the Jews

This massive description, is carved on a rock at the wells of Bir Hima, 90 km to the north-north-west of the Najran oasis. It's author is Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an, the scion of a powerful princely family of Hadramawt which converted to Judaism or a form of Israelitism. This prince was in charge of retaking control of the oasis for Himyarite King Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar and during this campaign he had three inscriptions carved, one at Kawbab, dated June 523 and to at Bir Hima, dated to July of the same year.

The following text contains a vague allusion to his religious beliefs but appointed to crush a Christian uprising prince Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an avoids taking an overtly religious stance. The only explicit indication of Judaism is the name 'Lord of the Jews' given by the general to God.

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Pre-Islamic rock art of Arabia at Bir Hima, carved into the eastern foothills of the Asir Mountains of Saudi Arabia.
May God, to whom belong Heaven and Earth, bless King Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar, king of all the communes, and may He bless the princes [ ......]
They joined their lord king Yusuf As'ar Yath'ar when he burnt the church and massacred the Abyssinians at Zafar, attacked Asháran, Rakban, Fara'san and Mahkawan, set upon himself to fight and blockade Nagran, and fortify the Maddaban chain, when he gathered (?) near him - after having sent them with an army - and when what the king succeeded.

In seizing as booty during this campaign to 12,500 slain, 11,000 prisoners, 290,000 camels, cows and sheep; wrote this inscription Prince Sharah'Il Yaqbul dhu-Yaz'an, when he positioned himself against Nagran with the commune of dhu-Hamdan - village dwellers and nomads - a detachment of Az'unan and the Arabs of Kiddat, Murad and Madhhig, while the princes, his brothers placed themselves with the king along the sea {fearing} Abyssinia and were fortyfing the Maddaban chain, as for all that he mentioned in this inscription in terms of massacre, booty and encirclement, it was in a single campaign, such that he was far from his homes for thirteen months.

May Raḥmānan bless their sons [....], in the month of dhu-madhra'an {July} six hundred and thirty three. May, with the protection of Heaven and Earth and the capacities of men, this inscription {be protected} against any author of degradation ... Was composed, written and carried out in the name of Raḥmānan {The Most Merciful} - the narration of Tamim dhu-Hadyat - Lord of the Jews with MHMD*
* Transliterates either to Muhammad or the Praised One

The context of the inscriptions and religious developments in Himyar may be much bigger then expected as some sources identify the 'Israelite' Himyarites as Palymarene refugees- the Palymarene empire was destroyed by destroyed by the Romans in 275 AD which provides a link between Zenobia and the Israelite kingdom of Himyar founded in the 4th century AD - an event known in North Arabian scripts as the "the year of the great migration" which would explain why the Safaitic and Hismaic scripts suddenly disappear at the end of the third century - they went for an extended holiday to Yemen.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Bronze inscription from Yemen, 600BC, mentioning towns of Judah and Dedan
Evidence for ancient (trade) relations between Yemen and Israel & Judah

A fragmented and broken but well-preserved 25-line South Arabian inscription mentions, among other things, a trading expedition of the kingdom of Sabaea - Biblical Sheba - to ’HGR YHD, the “towns of Judah”. Believed to date to around 600 B.C.E., the inscription confirms Judah’s role in a lucrative Arabian trade that is alluded to several times in the Bible.

This new bronze inscription has been documented at about the end of the seventh century BCE (1) and is apparently a memorial inscription displayed on the wall of a temple. It is broken, and only three large pieces from the top of the inscription have been preserved. Although the lower part is missing, parts of at least 25 lines of the inscription are extant written in Sabaean, the language of the South Arabian kingdom of Sabaea (Sheba) and adjacent areas and the South Arabian alphabet.

The author is a man named Sabahhumu from the ancient South Arabian city of Nashq , now called Al-Bayda. Sabahhumu is a messenger of the king of Sheba, “Yada’il Bayin, son of Yitha’amar” and thanks the main Sabaean god Almaqah for having saved him from many dangers, especially in wars, and he dedicates all his family and properties to the god. The text also describes an important trade expedition to “Dedan, [Gaz]a and the towns of Judah” (’HGR YHD). (2) This is the first time “the towns of Judah” are mentioned in a South Arabian inscription and the first mention of Judah in a South Arabian inscription from the first millennium BC.

The phrase “towns of Judah” is used frequently in the old testament - for instance, at the end of the 8th century BCE., Sennacherib, ruler of Assyria, sent his troops against the fortified “towns of Judah” (2 Kings 18:13; Isaiah 36:1). Three centuries later, Nehemiah (11:3) refers to the “towns of Judah” that seem then to constitute a Persian province. The same can be seen in the numerous references to the “towns of Judah” in the book of the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:15, 4:16, etc.) from the end of the First Temple period.

Dating this inscription is complicated, but set by its discoverer Lemaire, based on the text’s mention of a contemporary “war of Chaldea and Iawan” to about 600 BC (3) In this inscription “Dedan” is identified as a destination in this international trade as this oasis was on the caravan route from South Arabia to Gaza and Judah, as explicitly mentioned in this inscription. Biblical book Ezekiel also mentions merchants of Sheba (Ezekiel 27:22)

Other evidence for ancient trade relations between Yemen and the Near East

Archaeological excavations at Beersheba reveal traces of the South Arabian trade from at least as early as the eighth century BC (4) especially as evidenced by a probable South Arabian graffito.(5)

A chiseled Sabaean letter has also been discovered in Aroer, a site located at a major crossroads in the Negev.

Excavations in Jerusalem uncovered at least one clear fragmentary South Arabian inscription and two probable ones dating to the city’s 587/6 B.C.E. Destruction. (6)

Ezekiel describes this international trade at some length (Ezekiel 27). In a prophecy against the Phoenician city of Tyre, he refers to merchants of “Judah and the land of Israel” (Ezekiel 27:17).

Conclusion
Relations between Himyar/Yemen and the Near East, especially modern Israel, are over 3000 years old and along with the trade came religious concepts and ideas.

Notes
  • (1) This Inscription was dated by historian André Lemaire, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Paris and epigraphists François Bron and Christian Robin and cited in publications of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in Paris.
  • (2) Gaza is also mentioned later in Minaean inscriptions, in similar contexts, thereby making the reconstruction here quite certain.
  • (3) New Perspectives on the Trade between Judah and South Arabia,” in Meir Lubetski ed., New Inscriptions and Seals Relating to the Biblical World
  • (4) A Gateway Community in Southern Arabian Long-Distance Trade in the Eighth Century B.C.E.,” Tel Aviv 26 (1999), pp. 3–74, esp. 40–61.
  • (5)Bron, ibidem, p. 51
  • (6)Maria Höfner, “Remarks on Potsherds with Incised South Arabian Letters,” in Donald T. Ariel ed., Excavations at the City of David 1978–1985 Directed by Yigal Shiloh. Vol. 6, Qedem 41 (Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew Univ., 2000), pp. 26–28
Link to pdf with image of inscription
https://www.ybz.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAtta ... tracts.pdf, page 4
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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manfred
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Not everyone may be aware of the the fact that "Judah" and "Israel" are two distinct kingdoms. After Solomon, "Judah" was the southern part and "Israel" was the northern half of the region that once as a whole was called Israel. The Northern part retained the name and the southern one was called "Judah".
Jesus: "Ask and you will receive." Mohammed: "Take and give me 20%"

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Not everyone may be aware of the the fact that "Judah" and "Israel" are two distinct kingdoms.
After Solomon, "Judah" was the southern part and "Israel" was the northern half of the region that once as a whole was called Israel. The Northern part retained the name and the southern one was called "Judah"
I left it out on purpose. Ezekiel's 'Land of Israel' may refer to different locations and archeology
mentions primarily the kingdom of Samaria situated north of Yudah. Why different locations? The epigraphical record has names like Amos (ms'), lw (levites) or even Israel attested at Dedan long before the start of the Hamonean Period at Jerusalem.

'Minor' prophet Amos preaches north of 'Yudah' but his name is never attested. So where does Amos, contemporary of Isaiah who tells the people of Tema (Tayma) to "bring water for the thirsty" refugees coming from Dedan, preach? Possibly among the Israelite sites in Judah like Bethel or in Judah itself - this all depends on how you define 'Israelites'. Whatever definition you use, it is certain that there are multiple Lands of Israe'. The search starts (I think) in Genesis 25:11-18 - work in progress.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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Himyarite Religious Texts

Inscription Bayt al-Ashwal 1
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Yahuda Yakkuf laid the foundations of, and finished his palace Yakrub,from the base to the summit, with the assistance of his Lord and the grace of his Lord, who created him, the Lord of life and, the lord of the Sky and of the Earth, who created everything, thanks to the prayer of his people Israel, with the support of his lord Dhara amar Ayman, king of Saba, of dhu-Raydan, of Hadramawt, and of Yannat, and with the support of his kin; ...
This Hebrew text is carved on a large block from Zafar, Himyar's capital and was reused in the nearby village of Bayt al-Ashwal. The invocation to the king Dhara amar Ayman enables the text to be dated between 380 and 420 AD. Note that the 'Lord of the Sky (heavens) and Earth' governs the people of Israel.

Inscription Bayt al-Ashwal 2
Malkīkarib Yuhaʾmin and his sons Abīkarib Asʿad and Dhara amar Ayman, king of Saba, of f dhu-Raydan, of Hadramawt, and of Yannat, have built, laid the foundations of, and completed the palace Kln, from its base ti its summit, with the support of their lord, the Lord of Heavens in the month of dhu-di awan {January}of the year four hundred and ninety-three.
This text originates from Zafar, dated to January 384, and was also reused in Bayt al-Ashwal. King Malkīkarib Yuhaʾmin commemorates the construction of a new palace and for the first time expresses his rejection of polytheism amd the establishment of a new religion, without giving the slightest indication about the exact nature of his monotheism.(1) Of special interest is the mentioning of (monotheist) Himyarite year 493 which implies that its calendar started in 109 BC.

Inscription Hasī 1
.. has granted to the Lord of the Sky four plits, next to this rock descending until the fence of the cultivated area, to bury the Jews there, with the guarantee that the burial of a Gentile next to them will be avoided, so that they may fullfil their obligations towards the Jews....

...With the guarantee, the prohibition and the threat of the Lord of the Sky and of the Earth, one shall avoid burying a Gentile on these plots.....
This long text carved on granite was found at the edge of a valley a few hundred meters from the ancient city of Hasī (210 km to the southeast of Sana) and describes the creation of a cemetery only for Jews only and is dared towards the end of the fourth century. The prince who decrees the creation shares with the Jews the faith in the same god, is apparently favorable to them but whether he is a Jew himself is uncertain.

Inscription Ry 534 + Rayda 1
Marthad īlān Yarīm ibn Hamdān, Suʾrān, Aśwaf and Agra have built and completed this synagogue Barīk for Īl, lord of the Sky and the Earth, for the salvation of their lords Abīkarib Asʿad, Haśśān Yuha min, Madīkarib Yuhanʿim, Marthad īlān Yazʾan, and Shuri h˙biʾīl Ya fur, kings of Saba, of dhu-Raydān, of Hadramawt, and [of Yamn]at, and so that God, Lord of the Sky and the Earth, may grant them
fear of his name and the salvation of their selves, of their companions and of their subjects,
in times of war and peace. In the month 5 of dhu-khir āf ān {August}, of {the year} five hundred and forty-three. Shālôm, shālôm, mikrāb Barīk
This inscription was dated to August 433 and commemorates the construction of a mikrāb (synagogue or place of worship) and was found 55 km north of San'a. Note that the god of the Jews is once again depicted as the Lord of the Sky and Earth.

Inscription Ja 856 = Fa 60
Malkīkarib Yuhaʾ min and his son [Abīkarib Asʿad, kings of] Saba, of dhu-Raydān, of Hadramawt
and [of Yamnat have built from the foundations to] the summit their mikrāb Barīk for their salvation and . . . . . .
This inscription dates from circa 373 AD and was found in Marib, the old capital of Saba and is the oldest inscription commemorating the construction of a mikrāb (synagogue or place of worship) with its name – bryk – borrowed from Aramaic.

Inscription ZM 2000
[Binyā]mîn Abīshammar, his wife Abīʿalī, and their children Ya[hû][dâ] Marthad ʾīlān, banū Hry ,
Dhārih˙, Kahnal, Bʾl, Nh˙s¹, and Haywat, have built, laid the foundations, and completed their home
Yaruśś for their own life and salvation as well as that of their children, of their kin and of their servants.

With the assistance and the power of their lord Īlān, master of the Sky and of the Earth, with the assistance of their people Israël and with the assistance of their lord Shurih˙bi ʾīl king of Saba, of dhu-Raydān, and of Hadramawt. May Rah˙mānān give them there <in this house > an exemplary life. In the month of dhu-thābatān {April} Five hundred and eighty. Āmēn.
The date of the document, April 470, is some 90 years after the ofcial adoption of (Judeo-)Monotheism
The way that the terms such as Yahūd and Iśrāʾīl are used in the Himyarite inscriptions suggests that
Iśrāʾīl is a political community replacing the ancient communes. Rah˙mānān is equated with Īlān or ilāh-ān (2), the god of the Sky and Earth in the context of Israel.

Conclusion
New questions: Why is the monotheist god of Himyar described as the Lord of the Sky or Heaven and Earth? Why is Iśrāʾīl used as a political community and why does the monotheist calendar of Himyar start in 109 BC?

Notes
(1) Garbini 1970: 160–3 Müller 2010: 59
(2) The final ān is the definite article, so it is the equivalent of Arabic al-ʾilāh.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: The Quran versus the Arab Oral Tradition

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THE DEDANITIC RELIGION

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Location: Dedan, oasis of Ula, (Midian)
Era: 600 to 100 BC.
Deity: lh (god), pronounced as Allah.
Epithet: Dgbt - Official translation "He from the thickened bush", more likely Dhu-g-bt: "The One from the Congregational Tent/House".
Priest: s¹lḥ - literally 'he from God (Allah)' or 'him belonging to God (Allah)'

ZLL ceremony
This ceremony is mentioned numerous time as an event where God is honored and asked to bless the believer and his descendants - like in this inscription:
ḫlb
priest of Ḏġbt performed
for Ḏġbt the ẓll-ceremony at {Khl}
and so favour him
and his descendants
{and} help him
The verb ʾẓllw means "they performed the ẓll-ceremony". Usually, but not always, this verb is followed by the noun h-ẓll meaning the ẓll-ceremony". Thus,ʾẓllw and ʾẓllw h-ẓll both mean "they performed the ẓll-ceremony". But what is the difference between ʾẓllw and h-ẓll?

The Semitic root 'zl means to remove and in a religious context 'entire removal of sin'. So h-ẓll must be regarded as a portmanteau word, a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phonemes (sounds) are combined into a new word, like smog from smoke and fog. Here ẓll is a blend of 'zl' and 'il' creating a new verb 'removing sin for god'.

Portmanteau verb ẓllw explains how this is done. To 'remove sin' one encircles, from Semitic root lw(y) meaning to twist round and round, to circle. In monumental (Siniatic) script the š- form of the root lw(y) in the meaning “to circle”, “to hover about", meaning 'which I circle' or whom I 'circle'.

Levites
Minean inscriptions from Dedan (trade settlement from Main) mention temple servants as lw' and lw't - priest and priestess, dating from the 5th or 4th century BC. Apparently the temple of Wadd borrowed from Dedanitic traditions as the servant class lw' is not known in the two South Arabian kingdoms, Maín in the north and Aswan in the south, were W'add was the state god.

Some scholars have proposed that words lw' and lw't denote an object given to god, a pledge. This is highly unlikely for several reasons:
(1) Inscription JaL 050b mentions "s¹ʿd bn bʿlʾlw" meaning 's¹ʿd, son of the Lord of the lw' - those who encircle -
(2) Among the Yoruba Levites - distinguishable by their clans and names - can be found as half-priestly officials of the Oduduwa/Wadd section of Society. As we know, Wadd was worshiped in a Minean trade colony at Dedan. (See Cf Lange, "Ursprung des Bösen,", 25-26)
(3) The epigraphical record of Dedan which contains Biblical names that are unknown in the Levant until the start of the Hasmonean period.

Conclusion
If borrowed from nearby Dedan lw' references ecircling or 'one that encircumbulates' rendering Levite - which would make sens if once takes the entire context inconsideration - the mentioning of MHMD, Rhmn, Y'srael, Aron, Amos, Ra-Moshe in the Dedanitic epigraphical record.

The ZLL ceremony means that the believer encircles to remove sin and receive a blessing from God. Probably 7 times, something we'll address in a later stage.

And isn't that preciously what the Mishnah mentions? The priests formed the inner circle around the ark and the Levites encircled the priests -Hebrew Lēwî is a professional title, like kōhēn “priest,” not a marker of tribal affiliation and derives from the Hebrew verb lawah “to accompany, encircle".

Now we have to determine which Levites encircled first. Probably this was already an ancient, shared Israelite tradition in the sixth century BC. More important is that we found a carrier that can help explain the development of Abrahamic religions.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Theological: Mahmud from Najran Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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