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His life, his examples and his psychology
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FaFrIn
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I translated this text from French with google translator. Please correct if there are any major errors or incomprehensible sentences (approximately 30 minutes to read)
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The biographies of Muhammad of the 20th and 21st centuries are often angelic biographies, hagiographies. One of the best examples is the book "The Sealed Nectar" by the Hindu Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri. The same is true to the movie Al-Rissala (The Message). This is why the purpose of this essay is to thwart them by presenting only the unfavorable aspects of Muhammad's life that are hidden or minimized. This excessive angelism explains why the warmonger side of Islamic doctrine is ignored by the overwhelming majority of Muslims. This essay is based exclusively on primary Muslim sources, such as Al-sira ennabawiya (Ibn Ishaq), Tarikh al oumam wal moulouk (At-Tabari), Kitab At-Tabaqat Al-Kabir (Mohamed ben Saad), Al bidaya wannihaya ( Ibn Kathir), the collections of Sahih hadiths (Bukhari, Muslim, …), etc. These books serve as the basis for the study of Islam in all Muslim institutions (including Al-Azhar). Some contemporary Muslim commentators or scholars reject these authors even though they are essential in advocating Islam and its prophet.

I – BIRTH OF ISLAM AS A RELIGION IN MECCA AROUND 610

You should know that Muhammad, having been entrusted to a nurse, was deprived of maternal affection during at least the first two years of his life. The hadiths state that his apostolate began with dreams and that later in Medina it was found that he sometimes believed that he had done something that he had not done. The account of the appearance of the angel called Gabriel to Muhammad in 610 is questionable insofar as it did not know that Muhammad could not read and he did not announce to Muhammad that he would be a prophet. It will be Waraqa ibn Nawfal, Judeo-Christian and cousin of his first polytheist wife, who will tell him. Shortly after the revelation of the first verse of the Quran, Waraqa dies and the revelation stops. This is how Muhammad planned to commit suicide by jumping from the top of a mountain. But the revelation of the verses resumed, after a period of up to 3 years, depending on the sources.

The verses concerning the biblical characters will take place at the end of the Meccan period (before 622). If the Koran and the Sunna affirm that characters such as Ibrahim, Ishmael, Isaac, Dawud (David), Moussa (Moses), Souleyman (Solomon), 'Issa (Jesus), etc. belong to Islam, we can see that these first names never appear among the companions of Muhammad or among other people in the Hejaz before the Hegira (622), this is proof that Islam did not exist before Muhammad. On the other hand, surnames beginning with 'Abd (slave of) or 'Oubayd (diminutive of Abd) predate Islam.

At first, Quraysh, the polytheists of Mecca, rejected the new religion of Muhammad and brutalized his poor or slave companions to force them to leave Islam (a black female slave was killed). These persecutions were at the origin of a first emigration of Muslims to Abyssinia. A trade boycott campaign against Muslims failed. When Muhammad was asked what was the worst thing the polytheists did to him, he mentioned the following episode. After the polytheists mocked him, Muhammad told them "By Him who holds my soul in His power, I threaten you with having your throat cut" (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal). The next day, the polytheist 'Uqba ibn Abu Mu'ayt tried to strangle him before his friend and father-in-law Abu Bakr intervened to separate them. For this gesture, this polytheist was beheaded after being captured during the battle of Badr in 624. A hadith from Sunan Abu Dawud mentions this murder and where this polytheist asks Muhammad who will take care of his children after his death. Muhammad replied, “Hell! (Book of Jihad, chap. 128: murder of the prisoner, “sabran”, i.e. outside of combat, 2686). Another prisoner, Al-Naḍr ibn al-Harith, was also beheaded. His only proven wrong was that he said he knew stories better than those in the Quran. His beheading is depicted in a miniature from the manuscript “Siyar-I Nabi” by the Ottoman Mustafa Darir.

The polytheists of Mecca went to Medina, to ask the rabbis whether or not Muhammad was an impostor. The rabbis then proposed to the emissaries from Mecca to ask Muhammad three questions whose answers are found in the biblical texts. Back in Mecca they asked the three questions to Muhammad. He let them know that he would answer their questions the next day, but he did not give the answers until 15 days later.

The Koran (S16 V103) affirms that the polytheists said that Muhammad followed a teaching. The Koran does not deny the fact that Muhammad received an education, it just admits that this language was not Arabic. The names of the Judeo-Christians whom Muhammad frequented are: Bel 'ame, Ya 'ich, Yassar or Jabr.

When the polytheists challenged the god of Muhammad to punish them and rain stones on them, he answered them with the verse S8 V33 of the Koran which takes as a pretext the fact that Muhammad is in their midst. They asked Muhammad to stop mocking their deities, insulting their beliefs and creating division between them, but without success. To the proposal of syncretism proposed by the polytheists, the negative response of Muhammad was given through the Koran: " You have your religion, and I have my religion". (Surah 109 The Infidels). On the other hand, if they accepted Islam, Muhammad offered them the project by which the Arabs would be indebted to them and that the non-Arabs would pay them the jizya (Jami` at-Tirmidhi, n° 3232). So from the start, Muhammad had an expansionist project. This would explain his rejection of all the proposals of the polytheists (money, power, etc.).

Before the death of Abu Talib, uncle and protector of Muhammad, in 619, the notables of the city pledged to protect his nephew. Muhammad will refuse to attend his uncle's funeral since, on his deathbed, he refused Muhammad's request to embrace Islam. On this occasion was revealed the verse S9 V113: "It is not (permissible) for the Prophet and the believers to implore forgiveness in favor of the associators, even if they were parents when it became clear to them that they are the people of Hell”.

II – AL ‘AQABA II: BIRTH ACT OF POLITICAL ISLAM
For twelve years (610 to 622), the sermons addressed to the various polytheistic Arab tribes who came to Mecca on the occasion of the annual pilgrimage, did not succeed. Muhammad was even the object of stones thrown by children in Taif. A year before the Hegira, only a dozen polytheists in Medina agreed to embrace Islam. This will be al-‘Aqaba’s first pledge of allegiance. At the next pilgrimage, just before the Hegira, it will be the second oath of allegiance of al-‘Aqaba.

This agreement will confirm the expansionist project of Muhammad. As the future Muslims of Medina were about to swear allegiance to Muhammad, one of them, called al-Abbas ibn 'Ubâda, stopped them saying: "Do you know why you swear allegiance to this man"? They answered: “Yes”. He added: “You undertake to make war to all men” (to red and black in the text). Mahomet promised them, in exchange, paradise. This episode is mentioned in a hadith taken up by At-Tabari. This agreement will be canonized by the verse S22 V39 of the Koran: “Permission [to fight] is given to those who are fought because they have been wronged”. Muslim dogma regards this as an order from Allah to allow war. 73 men and 2 women from Medina embraced Islam at the end of this agreement without which Islam would probably not have existed. Thus, the politico-military dimension will prevail over the religious dimension from the installation of Muslims in Medina as shown by the list of military activities.

Contrary to what the Koran says, both in the various biographies and in the Sahih of Bukhari, Muslim or others, no alleged expulsion or confiscation of property are described during the departure for Medina. Several examples are cited where Meccan polytheists regret or even oppose the departure of Muslims. When Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father-in-law asked him if he could go with him to Medina, Muhammad answered him: "I await the order of Allah". His cousin and son-in-law, Ali, left three days after him. This will be the second emigration which will be called "the Hegira" (towards Medina) and which will take place from July to September 622. Ten months after his arrival in Medina, Muhammad is joined by his wife Aicha, aged 9 who he had married her when she was 6 or 7 years old. No Muslim questioned this age, before the 20th century, which is confirmed by different narrators in several hadiths. This escape to Medina will serve as the starting point for the Muslim calendar which will only be created by the second Caliph Omar in 638.

The story of the attempted assassination of Muhammad by the Meccans, before leaving for Medina, as described by Ibn Ishaq, is simply absurd: assassins who spend the whole night waiting in front of Muhammad's house without entering. He comes out and leaves dust on their heads without their seeing it..., etc.

Of the nine paternal uncles of Muhammad, only one will embrace Islam voluntarily and without prior conviction, Hamza. His second uncle Abbas or his cousins such as Abū Sufyān ibn al-Hārith or Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and almost all Meccans will only convert to Islam when Mecca is taken in 630.

Upon his arrival in Medina, Muhammad writes a letter (modus vivendi) between the Muslims coming from Mecca (Emigrants) and those from Medina (Ansars) and by which he commits himself to the Jews. It prescribes the rights and obligations of Jews without their consent appearing in writing. Blood and ransom are themes that often recur in this pact, wrongly called the "constitution of Medina" by some authors.

Between 610 and 622, with peaceful means, Muhammad only managed to make about a hundred Meccans and a hundred Medinans embrace Islam. In 622, he was a simple refugee in Medina. Ten years later, thanks to the raids, he reigned over a large part of Arabia and the number of Muslim warriors rose to several thousand (30,000 according to some sources). Chapter III helps to understand how this was possible.

III – NON-EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF MUHAMMAD’S EXPEDITIONS: from 623 to 632
First expedition of Al-‘Is: 9 months after his arrival in Medina, Muhammad sends 30 men commanded by his uncle Hamza towards the coast, between Mecca and Medina, but the caravan is defended by three hundred Meccan horsemen.
2nd expedition of ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Harith at the same period: Muhammad sends about sixty men to meet another caravan protected by two hundred men.

3rd Kharrar expedition in the 11th month of the Hegira: led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas on the road to Mecca, but the caravan had already passed.

4th Waddan expedition in the 2nd month of Year II: no fighting between the belligerents (commanded by Muhammad).

5th expedition of Buwwat in the 3rd month of Year II: Muhammad at the head of 150 men does not intercept the caravan which had changed its route

6th expedition of Al ‘Ushayra in the 6th month of the year II: Muhammad at the head of 200 men does not manage to intercept a Meccan caravan.

7th expedition of Nakhla in the 7th month of Year II: Muhammad sends an expedition supposed to bring back information, but the group attacked the four caravaneers and killed one of them. This attack took place during one of the 4 sacred months when the Arabs of the Hejaz refrained from waging war.

To face the reprobation of the polytheists, Muhammad's answer came through the verse S2 V217 of the Koran which affirmed that association is more serious than murder. This verse therefore legitimizes a deliberate violation of a sacred truce and encourages the murder of anyone considered to be an associator. Mahomet paid the blood price of the victim, released the two prisoners, but the texts do not mention the handing over of the booty to their owners. In this case, the intentions of Muhammad are doubtful. Sending eight men to report information on a trade caravan made up of four caravanners was not justified, especially since they did not report any information. Only having the letter giving the instructions (reporting information on the caravan) read after two days of walking was presenting the men with a fait accompli. To hide, at the start, the purpose of the expedition, if it were only to bring back information on a commercial caravan, seems no credible.
The 8th expedition in the 9th month of Year II (March 624) is the battle of Badr where Muhammad planned to attack an important caravan.

Informed of this project, the Meccan polytheists would have sent 800 men to protect the caravan. Given the number of polytheists killed (50) and taken prisoner (70), the number of 800 polytheists does not seem very credible because there were about 680 polytheists left against less than 300 Muslims. The booty was divided according to Tradition: 1/5th for Muhammad.

It is from this event that the violent and intolerant verses began to appear.

Shortly after the Battle of Badr, Muhammad expelled the first of Medina's three main tribes, the Banu Qaynuqa, after a 15-day siege. The Jews of this tribe had murdered a Muslim who had killed a Jewish jeweler who had offended a Muslim woman. According to Ibn Hisham and Ibn kathir, Muhammad intended to kill the 700 men of the tribe. Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, chief of one of the two Muslim tribes of Medina, prevented him from doing so. The Koran refers to this man by evoking the hypocrites, in particular the verse S9 V84.

9th expedition, some time after the battle of Badr: the murder of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a Jewish poet. Muhammad said: “Who for Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf? He insulted Allah and his messenger”. Muhammad allowed the commando leader, Muhammad ibn Maslama, to lie. They posed as enemies of Muhammad and killed him in his home.

10th expedition of Sawiq in the 12th month of Year II: it was a question of pursuing polytheists from Mecca who had made an incursion into Medina and had killed two Muslims.

11th expedition of Dhi Amr in the 2nd month of Year III: Muhammad, at the head of 450 men, stayed for a month in the neighboring territory of Nejd, East of Medina without there being any fight.

12th expedition of Buhran in the 4th and 5th month of Year III: Muhammad, at the head of 300 men, stayed for two months between Medina and Mecca without there being a fight.

13th expedition of Al-Qarada in the 6th month of Year III: To avoid the usual route to Syria (west of Medina), the caravan passed through the territory of Nejd. It was attacked by a military detachment commanded by Zayd ibn Harithah, adopted son of Muhammad, who seized the spoils.

In the 10th month of Year III, it was the battle of Uhud where the polytheists of Mecca came to challenge the Muslims near Medina and sought revenge after the defeat of Badr. After the body of his uncle Hamza was mutilated, Muhammad said, "If I get the upper hand, I will mutilate the bodies of thirty of them." Muhammad will then regret these words and this will result in the verse S16 V126 of the Koran.

In the 2nd month of year IV, polytheists tricked the Muslims by asking Muhammad to send him missionaries: 10 were massacred in Raji'. And at the same time, 40 (or 70) Muslim missionaries were massacred at Bir Ma'una in retaliation for the assassination of the polytheist Khalid bin Sufyan by companions of Muhammad.

In the 3rd month of year IV, Muhammad expelled the second Jewish tribe from Medina, the Banu Nadir, after burning their palm grove. According to him, they had tried to assassinate him, but he presented no evidence to anyone. The first verses of sura 59 (the exodus) are devoted to this expulsion where mention is made of spoils returning entirely to Muhammad since there was no fight. Muhammad having cut down their palm trees, verse S59 V5 of the Koran legitimizes this act.

14th expedition of Dhat al-Riqa', Muhammad at the head of 400 men, in the territory of Nejd in the 4th or 5th month of Year IV, without a fight.

15th Badr expedition in the 8th month of Year IV. The polytheists did not show up. for the appointment

16th expedition of Dumat al-Jandal in the 3rd month of Year V, at the edge of Byzantine territory, several hundred km north of Medina, i.e. 15 days of walking, without there having been a fight .

In the 10th month of the year V took place the battle of the ditch by which the polytheists of Mecca united with the Ghatafan, a tribe located north of Medina in the Nejd, to attack the Muslims. The trench and the wind forced the allies to put an end to the siege of Medina.

Immediately after the departure of the allies, Muhammad besieged the Jewish tribe of the Banu Qurayza for about twenty days, accusing it of having betrayed him when it did not take part in the fight and remained neutral. All the males of this tribe were slaughtered, the women and children sold as slaves. A Jewish woman was beheaded for having killed a Muslim by throwing a mill at him (hadith of Aicha: “Only one of their wives was killed...”).

None of the three Jewish tribes expelled or massacred is mentioned in the agreement concluded between the Muslims who came from Mecca (Emigrants) and those from Medina (Ansars).

17th expedition, some time after the Battle of the Trench. Muhammad sent a group of Muslims to eliminate the old Jewish poet Abu Rafi'. Abdullah ibn 'Atik came to his house at night and killed him. The pretext was that he was a declared enemy of Islam.

18th expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah in the 1st month of Year VI: Muhammad sent 30 men to the territory of Nejd against the Banu Bakr tribe. The booty was 150 camels and 3000 goats.

19th Banu Lahyan expedition in the 4th month of Year VI: At the head of 200 men, Muhammad wanted to avenge the Muslims killed in Raji, but the Banu Lahyan tribe had taken refuge in the mountains.

20th expedition of Zayd ibn Haritha at the same period: the Muslims took captives and booty.

21st expedition of Dhu Qarad in the 5th month of Year VI: to catch polytheists from Ghatafan who killed a Muslim shepherd and stole his animals.

The 22nd expedition took place in the 8th month of the year VI (December 627) in the territory of the Banu Mustaliq tribe towards the coast more than 250 km from Medina. Several hadiths explain that Muhammad attacked this tribe while they carelessly watered their herds. He approved of the rape of female captives – several hadiths from the Sahih Bukhari – authorizing his companions not to practice coitus interruptus in relation to the risk of pregnancy (the market value of a pregnant slave would decrease). While distributing captives, the beautiful Juwayriyya bint al-Harith, daughter of the chief of the tribe, fell into the lot of one of Muhammad's warriors.

On the way back to Medina, after a halt, the troop broke camp, unaware that Aisha, the young wife of Muhammad, was not in the palanquin of her camel. She was found and brought back by a warrior who was behind the troop, but they were not able to rejoin the group until the next day. Then the rumor spread in Medina that she had committed adultery. The Koran waited a month to declare Aisha innocent, but this period corresponds to the time necessary to remove any doubt about a possible pregnancy.

Back in Medina, the beautiful Juwayriyya bint al-Harith, asked Muhammad to help her redeem her freedom. He then proposed marriage to her, which allowed the liberation of a hundred families of his tribe, which became Muslim.

In the 11th month of the year VI (March 628) the Treaty of Houdaybiya was signed, which provided for a 10-year truce between the Muslims of Medina and Quraysh, the polytheists of Mecca. Among the conditions of this treaty, Muhammad was to send back to Medina the Meccans who would join him without the permission of their guardian. But he did not respect this last point since he refused to return to their guardian Meccan women who had converted to Islam and who had joined him. The Koran decreed on this occasion the verse S60 V10 allowing not to return Muslim women.

If the companions of Muhammad considered this treaty as humiliating, it will prove to be strategic since it will leave the way open to Muhammad to attack the other cities of Hejaz. Moreover, after this treaty, Muhammad sent letters to neighboring rulers, including Heraclius, in which he called on them to embrace Islam and in which he specified: "aslim taslem - If you become a Muslim, your life will be saved (several sources including Sahih Bukhari).

In reality, the attacks against the caravans of the polytheists never ceased despite the truce. They were the work of small groups of slaves newly converted to Islam and having fled their polytheistic masters.

23rd expedition at the beginning of the year VII (June 628): Muhammad attacked without real and serious reason, Khaybar and Fadak, the last Jewish cities of the Hejaz located 150 km north of Medina. Mahomet authorized one of his warriors to choose a wife among the captives. The father and husband of the chosen woman, Safiyya, a 17-year-old newlywed, had just been killed. Several hadiths specify that when the beauty of this woman was described to Muhammad and when he saw her, he asked the warrior to choose another woman. On the way back, he slept with her without observing the period of widowhood necessary in order to avoid conflicts of paternal filiation. For the marriage dowry, he offered her freedom from her status as a slave. In a hadith however, she had said: “the prophet was for me the most detestable man, he killed my husband, my father and my brother” (Sahih Ibn Hibban 11/607 and Kitab Futuh Al-buldan of Al- Baladhuri).

From the 3rd to the 10th month of the year VII, various small military expeditions took place. In the 11th month of the year VII, Muhammad made the small pilgrimage as provided for by the Treaty of Houdaybiya and under the authority of the polytheists.

24th expedition in the 5th month of the year VIII (August 629): Muhammad sent an army of 3,000 men to Mu'tah, more than 1,000 km from Medina (in present-day Jordan), an expedition which ended in the loss of 3 Muslim leaders.

25th expedition in the 9th month of the year VIII (January 630): Muhammad invades Mecca with 10,000 men, thus violating the treaty of Houdaybiya concluded for 10 years. The pretext given is that the Meccan polytheists helped an allied tribe, the Banu Bakr, to attack the Khuza'a tribe, allied with the Muslims. Ibn Ishaq (b. 704) claims that the tribe of Banu Bakr (with polytheists) and that of Khuza'ah (with Muslims) were linked to the treaty of Houdaybiya. However, the collections of hadiths of Bukhari, Muslim or Abu Dawud, do not mention these two tribes in the treaty. Furthermore, some hadiths relating to this treaty mention two source narrators, Marwan ibn al-Ḥakam and Miswar Ben Makhrama, who were only 6 years old at the time of the treaty.

During this conquest, Muhammad again authorized temporary marriage for a period of 15 days which he had advised against in 628 at Khaybar.

At least one man was assassinated on his order, Ibn Khatal. Among the other people he ordered killed was Abd Allah ibn Saad, a scribe who had returned to Makkah and apostatized after discovering he could alter phrases from the Quran.
Uthman ibn Affan (future 3rd caliph), who was his foster brother, interceded on his behalf for his pardon. Muhammad refused his allegiance three times before accepting it and reproached his accomplices for not having killed him before he accepted his allegiance (Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab al hudud, chap 1: the judgment of the one who apostasy, No. 4359).
Muhammad destroyed all the statues of the pantheon, thus putting an end to the tolerance of the religions which were represented there.

26th expedition at the same period: Muhammad sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to destroy the place dedicated to the goddess al-‘Uzza

27th Banu Jadhima expedition at the same period: Muhammad sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam. They accepted but some of them were massacred only for saying "we have become Sabaeans". Informed of this massacre, Muhammad contented himself with saying to Khalid ibn al-Walid: “I am innocent of what you have done”.

28th expedition of Hunayn and 29th expedition of Awtas in the 10th month of the year VIII: Muhammad, at the head of 10,000 Muslims to which were added the 2,000 new Muslims of Mecca, went on a campaign to oppose several tribes polytheists who decided to march against the Muslims. After their defeat, part of these tribes took refuge in Taif 80 km from Mecca. On the occasion of this battle, Muhammad approved the rape of married captives and this will be canonized by the verse S4 V24 (Sahih Muslim, Book of breastfeeding, n° 1456; Sunan and Abu Dawud, Book of marriage, 2155)

30th expedition of Taïf, just after that of Awtas: After a siege that lasted more than 15 days and during which Muhammad cut their vines and used catapults, the tribes of the region ended up accepting Islam. Muhammad had allowed his soldiers to attack pagans with the risk of exposing their wives and children to danger ever since the battle of Al-Abwa (or Waddan) where he said: “They are part of them, there is no protection except for Allah and his messenger” (several hadiths from Sahih Bukhari and Muslim).

Muhammad returned to settle in Medina in the 11th month of the year VIII.

31st expedition of ‘Uyayna bin Hisn in the 1st month of the year IX: Muhammad sent about fifty men against the tribe of Banu Tamim who had refused to pay him alms. They killed men and took captives.

32nd expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir in the 2nd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent about twenty men to attack the Banu Khath'am tribe several hundred kilometers away. The booty consisting of cattle and women was brought back to Medina.

33rd expedition of Dahhak Ibn Sufyan al-Kilabi in the 3rd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent a commando against the Banu Kilab tribe to ask them to become Muslims. The tribe escaped, but one of the young Muslims managed to catch up with his own father and participated in his murder for insulting Islam. 34th expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the 3rd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent 150 men against the Banu Tayy, a partly Christian tribe, in the territory of Nejd, to destroy the statue of the pagan deity al- Fuls. The tribe ends up accepting Islam.

35th Tabouk expedition in the 7th month of the year IX (October 630): In the context of the verse called the sword (S9 V29), Muhammad, at the head of several thousand men, wanted to fight the blonds (the Byzantines) and would have stayed ten days in Tabouk more than 600 km from Medina. On the way back, he stopped in a village, at the request of its inhabitants, to inaugurate a mosque. But he finally ordered that it be burned because it had been built on the orders of a Christian enemy of Islam who had fled in the meantime. The Koran evokes this event (S9 V107).

First pilgrimage to Mecca under Muslim authority in the 11th month of the year IX during which Muhammad sent his cousin and son-in-law Ali to declare that the pilgrimage will be prohibited for non-Muslims after this year and that only fixed-term pacts will not be broken.

Open-ended pacts will be reduced to four months after which polytheists will be fought until they embrace Islam. Verses S9 V1 to V7 of the surah "the disavowal" (Bara'ah) allude to the rupture by Allah and his prophet of the pacts which bind them to the polytheists.

36th expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid to Najran (Yemen) around June 631 (5th month of Year X) to convert the Banu harith ben ka'b tribe by force if they refuse Islam. Upon receiving them, Muhammad said to them: “If Khalid ibn al-Walid had not written to me that you had embraced Islam, I would have put your heads under your feet” (episode quoted by several authors).

In the 11th month of Year X (March 632), 80 days before his death, Muhammad's only great pilgrimage called "the farewell pilgrimage" took place, during which he declared that he did not know if he would make the pilgrimage after this one and where he declares having finished his mission. These two sentences are related to the fact that a few days before his death he still felt the pain caused by the food he had eaten during the Khaybar expedition.

37th expedition of Dhul Khalasa in April 632: Muhammad sends 150 men to destroy the Kaaba of Yemen. They demolished it and killed those who were there. On their return, Muhammad congratulated them with prayer (da`wa).

38th expedition of Usama bin Zayd in the 2nd month of Year XI (May 632) with the aim of attacking the tribes of Palestine (the expedition ended after the death of Muhammad).

During the last days of illness preceding his death (3rd month Year XI, June 632), Muhammad said to his wife Aisha: "I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaybar and I impression that my aorta is cut by this poison”. The Jewess who had poisoned him was killed on the orders of Muhammad after one of his companions died of this poisoning (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Blood Money, Chap. 6: Of him who waters and kills with poison, n ° 4511). Immediately after Muhammad's death, the future caliph, Abu Bakr, recited the verse "Muhammad is only a messenger..." (S3 V144). Here is what the narrator of the hadith says: “By Allah, it is as if people did not know that Allah had revealed it before Abu Bakr recited it. People learned it from him and everyone started to recite it” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals, Chap. 3: Visiting the deceased, n° 1185; Book of Expeditions, Chap. 78: The illness of the prophet and his death, 4187)

IV – SOME HADITHS UNKNOWN BY MUSLIMS

• Muhammad and violence:
Eight men stole the camels of the prophet and killed his shepherd. After they were caught, he gave orders to cutt off their hands and feet and gouge out their eyes with heated nails for stealing, killing, apostatizing and fighting Allah and His Messenger (several hadiths from the Sahih Bukhari) .

The prophet said: “I have been given 5 things which no prophet has obtained before me: I won with terror over a distance of a month's walk; …; the booty has been made lawful for me when it was not lawful for anyone before me; …”. (Sahih Bukhari, Book of dry ablutions, 328 and Book of prayers (mosques), Chap. 23: The words of the prophet, 427).

Hadith in several versions where Muhammad says: "I was ordered to fight the people until they say that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is his messenger...".

The Messenger of Allah said: He who dies without fighting or does not express the desire to do so, dies the death of a hypocrite (Sahih Muslim, Book of Governance, Chap. 47: Disapproval of him who dies without fighting, 1910).
The Prophet said: "Whoever changes his religion, kill him!" (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Jihad, Chap. 147: on the fact that one should not punish as Allah does, 2854).

The Prophet said to the Jews: “If you convert to Islam, you will be safe. … You must know that the land belongs to Allah and his messenger and I want to expel you from this land…” (Sahih Bukhari, 2996/6545).

The Prophet said: “Order the child to pray at the age of seven and when he reaches the age of ten, strike him to do it” (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Prayer, Chapter 26: at what age a child is commanded to pray, 495).

• Muhammad and slavery:
“I saw the Prophet when there were only 5 slaves and 2 wives with him (Sahih Bukhari, Book of the merits of the companions, Chap. 5: Saying of the Prophet, 3460; Chap. 59: Islamization of Abu Bakr, 3644).

The Prophet sells a slave for 800 dirhams, when he was to be freed upon the death of his master” (several hadiths from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim).

His wife, Maymuna Bint al-Harith had freed a slave girl without asking her permission. The day he came to see her, he told her: "If you had given it to your maternal uncles, you would have had a greater reward" (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Gifts, Chap. 14: a woman offering to another than her husband, 2452, 2454).

The Prophet stopped for three days between Khaybar and Medina and consummated his marriage with Safiyya bint Huyayy. The Muslims said: 'Is she one of the mothers of the believers or a slave? If he veils her, then she is one of the mothers of believers. If he does not veil her, she is his slave.” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Marriage, Chap. 60: The consummation of marriage during the journey, 4864).

Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, in his book “Zâd al-Ma’âd”, quotes the names of four female slaves of Muhammad, about twenty unfreed male slaves as well as eight servants including Bilal ibn Rabah.
At the time of Muhammad and the first caliphs, freed slaves remained in the service of their master and had the status of mawla.
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Ariel
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Re: Who wants to correct this text?

Post by Ariel »

I would love to help you FaFrIn, but Englisch is not my first language.

What matters is, that anyone who read this translation, understand this article.
The heart of the wise inclines to the right,
but the heart of the fool to the left.
FaFrIn
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Re: Who wants to correct this text?

Post by FaFrIn »

Ok, Thank you
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