THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

His life, his examples and his psychology
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panis
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THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

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THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

I - BIRTH OF ISLAM AS A RELIGION IN MECCA AROUND 610
II - AL ‘AQABA II: BIRTH CERTIFICATE OF POLITICAL ISLAM
III - NON-EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF MUHAMMAD MILITARY EXPEDITIONS: from 623 to 632
IV - SOME HADITHS LITTLE KNOWN BY MUSLIMS

Muhammad's biographies of the 20th and 21st centuries are often angelic biographies, hagiographies. One of the best examples is the book "The Sealed Nectar" of the Hindu Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri. It is the same with the movie Al-Rissala (The Message). This is why the aim of this essay is to counteract them by presenting only the unfavorable aspects of the life of Muhammad, which are overshadowed or diminished. This excessive angelism explains that the warmonger side of Islamic doctrine is ignored by the overwhelming majority of Muslims. This essay is based exclusively on primary Muslim sources, such as Al-sira en-nabawiya (Ibn Ishaq), Tarikh al-Ummam al-Moulouk (At-Tabari), Kitab At-Tabaqat Al-Kabir (Mohamed ben Saad), Al bidaya wannihaya (Ibn Kathir), collections of sahih hadiths (Bukhari, Muslim, ...), etc. These books serve as a basis for the study of Islam in all Muslim institutions (including Al-Azhar). Some contemporary Muslim commentators or scholars reject these authors, even though they are essential for praising Islam and its prophet. And it is in this same sense that, to invalidate such disturbing hadith, they often appeal to the controversial contemporary Albanian theologian, Al-Albani.

I - THE BIRTH OF ISLAM AS A RELIGION IN MECCA AROUND 610
It should be known that Mahomet, having been entrusted to a nurse, was deprived of maternal affection during at least the first two years of his life. The hadiths state that his apostolate began with dreams and later in Medina, it was noted that he sometimes thought he had done something he did not do (many hadiths). The story of the apparition of the angel called Gabriel to Muhammad in 610 is questionable insofar as he did not know that Muhammad could not read and he does not announce to him that he will be a prophet. It will be Waraqa ibn Nawfal, Judeo-Christian and cousin of his first polytheistic woman, who will announce it to him. Shortly after the revelation of the first verse of the Quran, Waraqa died and the revelation stopped. This is how Muhammad planed to commit suicide by throwing himself off a mountain. But the revelation of the verses returned, after a period of up to 3 years, according to certain sources.
The verses concerning biblical figures will appear at the end of the Meccan period (before 622). If the Quran and Sunna claim that the figures such as Ibrahim, Ismail, Isaac, Dawud (David), Moussa (Moses), Souleyman (Solomon), 'Issa (Jesus), etc. belong to Islam, we can see that these first names never appear among the companions of Muhammad or other people of the Hijaz before Hegira (622), proof is that Islam did not exist before Muhammad . On the other hand names starting with 'Abd (slave of) or 'Oubayd (diminutive of Abd) are anterior to Islam.
In the beginning, Quraych the polytheists of Mecca, rejected the new religion of Muhammad and brutalized his poor or slaves companions to force them to leave Islam (a woman black slave was killed). These persecutions were at the origin of a first emigration of Muslims towards Abyssinia. A commercial boycott campaign against Muslims failed. When Muhammad was asked what was the worst thing the polytheists did to him, he referred to the next episode. After the polytheists mocked him, Muhammad declared to them "By the one who holds my soul in His power, I threaten to have your throat cut off" (Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal). The next day, 'Uqba ibn Abu Mu'ayt tried to strangle him before the intervention of his friend and father-in-law Abu Bakr to separate them. For this gesture, this polytheist was beheaded after being captured during the Battle of Badr in 624. A hadith of Sunan Abu Dawud evokes this murder where this polytheist asks Muhammad who will take care of his children after his death. Muhammad answered, "Hell! " (Book of Jihad, chap. 128: murder of the prisoner, "sabran" i.e. out of combat, 2686). Another prisoner, Nadr ibn al-Harith, was also beheaded. His only proven fault was to say that he knew stories better than those of the Quran. His beheading is depicted in a miniature of the manuscript "Siyar-I Nabi" by the Ottoman Mustafa Darir.
The polytheists of Mecca went to Medina to ask the rabbis whether or not Muhammad was an impostor. The rabbis then proposed to the polytheists to ask Muhammad three questions whose answers are found in the biblical texts. Back in Mecca they put the three questions to Muhammad. He informed them that he would answer their questions the next day, but he did not give the answers until 15 days later. The Quran (S16 V103) states that the polytheists said that Muhammad was being taught. The Quran does not deny the fact that Muhammad received a teaching, he just admits that this language was not Arabic. The names of the Judeo-Christians frequented by Mahomet are Bel'Ame, Ya'ich, Yassar, and Jabr.
When the polytheists challenged the god of Muhammad to punish them and rain stones on them, he replied with the verse S8 V33 of the Quran, which takes the pretext that Muhammad is in their midst. They asked Muhammad to stop making fun of their divinities, to insult their beliefs and to create division among them, but in vain. To the proposition of syncretism proposed by the polytheists, the negative answer of Mahomet was given through the Quran: "To you your religion, and to me my religion". (Surah 109 The infidels). On the other hand, if they accepted Islam, Muhammad proposed to them the project by which the Arabs will be indebted to them and that the non-Arabs will pay them the jizya (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 3232). So from the beginning, Muhammad had an expansionist project. That would explain his rejection of all the propositions of the polytheists (money, power, etc.). Muhammad will refuse to attend the funeral of his uncle and protector, Abu Talib, since, on his deathbed, the latter refused the request of Muhammad to embrace Islam. Before the death of Abu Talib, in 619, the notables of the city pledged to protect his nephew.

II/ AL ‘AQABA II: BIRTH CERTIFICATE OF POLITICAL ISLAM
For twelve years (610 to 622), the sermons, addressed to the various polytheistic Arab tribes who came to Mecca on the occasion of the annual pilgrimage, did not succeed. Muhammad was even thrown stones by children in Taif. A year before the Hegira, only a dozen polytheists from Medina agreed to embrace Islam. This will be the al-'Aqaba's first oath of allegiance. On the next pilgri-mage, just before the Hegira, it will be the al-'Aqaba's second oath of allegiance. This agreement will confirm the expansionist project of Muhammad. While the Medinans were going to pledge allegiance to Muhammad, one of them, called al-Abbas ibn 'Ubada, stopped them saying: “Do you know why you pledge allegiance to this man”? They answered "Yes". "You commit yourself to war against all men" (red and black in the text). Muhammad promised them, in exchange, paradise. This episode is mentioned in a hadith quoted by At-Tabari. This agreement will be will be made sacred by the verse S22 V39 of the Quran : "Permission is given to those who are fought because they have been harmed". The Muslim dogma considers this an order of Allah to authorize war. 73 men and 2 women from Madina embraced Islam at the end of this agreement, without which Islam probably would not have existed. Thus the politico-military dimension will take precedence over the religious dimension from the settlement of Muslims in Medina as shown by the list of military activities.
Contrary to what the Quran asserts, no alleged expulsion or confiscation of property is described during the departure for Medina, and this as well in the different biographies as in the Sahih of Bukhari, Muslim or others. Several examples are cited where Meccan polytheists regret or even oppose the departure of Muslims. When Abu Bakr, Muhammad's right-hand and father-in-law asked him if he could go with him to Medina, he replied, "I am waiting for Allah's order." His cousin and son-in-law, Ali, left three days after him. This will be the second emigration that will be called "Hegira" (to Medina) and will stretch from July to September 622. Ten months after his arrival in Medina, Muhammad is joined by his wife Aicha, 9 years old, that he married when she was 6 or 7 years old. No Muslim opposed this age before the 20th century, which is confirmed by various narrators in several hadiths. This leak to Medina will serve as a starting point of the Muslim calendar which will be created by the second caliph Omar in 638.
The story of the Meccans' attempted assassination of Muhammad, before leaving for Medina, as described by Ibn Ishaq, is not credible: assassins who spend all night waiting in front of Muhammad's house without entering ... Muhammad who goes out and puts dust on their heads without them seeing him..., etc.
Of the nine paternal uncles of Muhammad, only one will embrace Islam voluntarily and without prior conviction, Hamza. His second uncle Abbas or his cousins such as Abu Sufyān ibn al-Hārith or Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and almost all the Meccans will only convert to Islam on the occasion of the conquest of Mecca in 630.
On his arrival in Medina, Muhammad wrote a text (modus vivendi) between Muslims from Mecca (Emigrants) and those from Medina (Ansars) and through which he committed himself toward the Jews. He prescribes the rights and obligations of Jews without their consent appearing in the written. Blood and ransom are emerging themes in this pact, wrongly called "constitution of Medina" by some authors.
Between 610 and 622, with peaceful means, Muhammad was able to convince only a hundred Mecca and a hundred Medinan to embrace Islam. In 622, he was a simple refugee in Medina. Ten years later, he reigned over part of Arabia and the number of Muslim warriors was several thousand (30,000 according to certain sources). Chapter III shows how this was possible..

NON-EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF MUHAMMAD’S MILITARY EXPEDITIONS: from 623 to 632
First expedition of Al-'Is: 9 to 10 months after his arrival in Medina, Muhammad sends 30 men commanded by his uncle Hamza towards the coast, between Mecca and Medina, but the caravan is defended by three hundred cavalry Meccans.
Ubaydah ibn al-Harith's second expedition at the same time: Muhammad sent sixty men to meet another caravan protected by two hundred men.
3rd expedition of Kharrar in the 11th month of the Hegira: led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas on the road to Mecca, but the caravan had already passed.
4th expedition of Waddan in the 2nd month of Year II: no fight between the belligerents (com-manded by Muhammad).
5th Buwwat expedition in the 3rd month of the year II: Muhammad at the head of 150 men does not intercept the caravan who had changed his route.
6th expedition of Al 'Ushayra in the 6th month of the year II: Muhammad at the head of 200 men fails to intercept a Meccan caravan.
7th expedition of Nakhla in the 7th month of Year II: Muhammad sends an expedition supposed to report information, but the group attacked the four caravaneers and killed one of them. This attack took place during one of the four sacred months when the Arabs of the Hejaz forbid themselves to make war. To deal with the disapproval of the polytheists, the response of Muhammad came through the verse S2 V217 of the Quran which affirmed, among other things, that the association is worse than the murder. This verse thus legitimizes a deliberate violation of a sacred truce. Muhammad paid the price of the blood of the victim and released the two prisoners, but the texts do not mention the delivery of the booty to their owners. In this case, Muhammad's intentions are doubtful. Sending eight men to report information on a commercial caravan composed of four caravans was unjustified, especially since they did not report any information. Do not read the letter giving instructions (report information on the caravan) until after two days of walking, it was to put men in front of the accomplished fact. Hiding the purpose of the expedition, if it were only to report information on a commercial caravan, seems not credible.
The 8th expedition in the 9th month of the year II (March 624) is the battle of Badr where Muhammed planned to attack an important caravan. Informed of this project the Meccan polytheists would have sent 800 men to protect the caravan. Given the number of polytheists killed (50) and taken prisoner (70), the figure of 800 polytheists seems hardly credible because there remained about 680 polytheists in front of less than 300 Muslims. The booty was shared according to Tradition: 1 / 5th for Muhammad.
It was from this event that violent and intolerant verses began to appear
Shortly after the Battle of Badr, Muhammad expelled the first of the three main Jewish tribes of Medina, Banu Qaynuqa, after a 15-day siege. The Jews of this tribe had murdered a Muslim who had killed a Jewish jeweler who had offended a woman Muslim. According to Ibn Hisham and Ibn kathir, Muhammad intended to kill the 700 men of the tribe. Abdullah ibn Ubayy, leader of one of the two Muslim tribes of Medina, prevented him. The Quran refers to the latter by referring to the hypocrites, especially the verse S9 V84.
9th expedition, some time after the battle of Badr: murder of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a Jewish poet. Muhammad says: "Who for Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf? He insulted Allah and his messenger ". Muhammad allowed the commander of the commando, Muhammad ibn Maslama, to lie. They pretended to be enemies of Muhammad and killed him at home.
10th expedition of Sawiq in the 12th month of Year II: it was to prosecute polytheists from Mecca who had made an incursion in Medina and killed two Muslims.
Dhi Amr's 11th Expedition to the 2nd Month of the Year III: Muhammad, at the head of 450 men, stayed for a month in the neighboring territory of the Nejd, east of Medina, without there being any fight.
12th Buhran expedition in the 4th and 5th month of the year III: Muhammad, at the head of 300 men, stayed for two months between Medina and Mecca without there being any fight.
13th expedition of Al-Qarada in the 6th month of Year III: To avoid the usual route of Syria (west of Medina), the caravan passed through the territory of the Nejd. She was attacked by a military detachment who seized the booty.
In the 10th month of Year III, it was the battle of Uhud where the polytheists of Mecca came to challenge the Muslims near Medina and sought revenge after the defeat of Badr. After the body of his uncle Hamza was mutilated, Muhammad said: "If I take over, I will mutilate the bodies of thirty men among them." Muhammad will then regret these words and this will give the verse S16 V126 of the Quran.
In the 2nd month of year IV, polytheists trapped Muslims by asking Muhammad to send him missionaries: 6 or 10 (according to the sources) were massacred in Raji'. And at the same time, 40 (or 70) missionaries Muslims were massacred at Bir Ma'una in retaliation for the assassination of the Khalid bin Sufyan polytheist by companions of Muhammad.
In the 3rd month of year IV, Muhammad expelled the second Jewish tribe of Medina, Banu Nadir. According to him, they tried to kill him, but he did not present any evidence to anyone. The first verses of sura 59 (the exodus) are devoted to this expulsion where there is mention of booty returning entirely to Muhammad since there was no fight. Muhammad having cut their palms, the verse S59 V5 of the Quran legitimizes this act (It's easy to blame Allah!).
14th expedition of Dhat al-Riqa', Muhammad at the head of 400 men, in the territory of the Nejd in the 4th or 5th month of Year IV, without a fight.
15th expedition of Badr in the 8th month of Year IV. The polytheists did not show up.
16th expedition of Dumat al-Jandal in the 3rd month of the year V, on the border of the Byzantine territory, several hundred kilometers north of Medina, 15 days of walking, without any fighting .
In the 10th month of the year V took place the battle of the ditch by which the Meccan polytheists coalesced with the Ghatafan, a tribe located north of Medina in the Nejd, to attack the Muslims. The trench and the wind forced the allies to end the siege of Medina.
Immediately after the departure of the coalition, Muhammad besieged the Banu Qurayza Jewish tribe for twenty days, accusing them of betraying him when they did not take part in the fight and remained neutral. All the males of this tribe were slaughtered, the women and children sold as slaves. A Jewish woman was beheaded for killing a Muslim by throwing a mill at him (hadith of Aisha: "only one of their wives was killed...").
None of the three Jewish tribes expelled or massacred is mentioned in the agreement between Muslims from Mecca (Emigrants) and those from Medina (Ansars).
17th expedition, some time after the battle of the trench. Muhammad sent a group of Muslims to eliminate the old Jewish poet Abu Rafi. Abdullah ibn 'Atik went to his house by night and killed him. The pretext was that it was a declared enemy of Islam and that one of the two Muslim tribes from Medina (Khazraj) wanted to imitate the other (Aws) who had murdered the Jewish poet Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf .
18th expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah in the first month of the year VI: Muhammad sent 30 men in the territory of the Nejd against the Banu Bakr tribe. The booty was 150 camels and 3,000 goats.
Banu Lahyan's 19th Expedition in the 4th Month of the Year VI: At the head of 200 men, Muhammad wanted to avenge the Muslims killed in Raji, but the Banu Lahyan tribe had taken refuge in the mountains.
20th expedition of Zayd ibn Haritha at the same time: Muslims took captives and booty.
Dhu Qarad's 21st Expedition to the 5th month of Year VI: to catch up Ghatafan's polytheists who killed a Muslim shepherd and stole his animals.
The 22nd expedition took place in the 8th month of the year VI (December 627) in the territory of the tribe Banu Mustaliq towards the coast more than 250 km from Medina. Several hadiths from Sahih Bukhari explain that Muhammad attacked this tribe while they were watering their flocks carelessly. He approved the rape of captives by allowing his companions not to practice coitus interrupted in relation to the risk of pregnancy (the market value of a pregnant slave would decrease). In distributing the captives, the beautiful Juwayriyya bint al-Harith, daughter of the chief of the tribe, fell into the lot of one of the warriors of Muhammad.
On the way back to Medina, after a halt, the troop raised the camp, ignoring that Aisha, the young wife of Mahomet, was not in the palanquin of his camel. She was found and brought back by a warrior who was late on the troop, but they could join the group only the next day. The rumor spread in Medina that she had committed adultery. The Quran waited a month to declare Aisha innocent, however this delay corresponds to the time necessary to remove any doubt about a possible pregnancy.
Back in Medina, the beautiful Juwayriyya bint al-Harith asked Muhammad to help her to redeem her freedom. He then proposed the marriage, which allowed the release of a hundred families of his tribe who became Muslim.
In the 11th month of the year VI (March 628) was signed the treaty of Houdaybiya which provided for a truce of 10 years between the Muslims of Medina and Quraysh, the polytheists of Mecca. During the negotiations Abu Bakr, father-in-law of Muhammad, told to a polytheist, " Go suck Al-Lat's clitoris". This treaty allowed Muslims to make the pilgrimage only from next year, was limited to three days and supervised the carrying of weapons. Muhammad should send back to Mecca the Meccans who would join him without the permission of their guardian. But he did not respect this last point because he refused to give to their guardian, Meccan women converted to Islam and who had joined him. The Quran decreed on this occasion the verse S60 V10 allowing not to return Muslim women (It's easy to blame Allah!).
If the companions of Muhammad considered this treaty as humiliating, it will prove strategic since it will leave the way open to Muhammad to attack the other cities of the Hejaz. Moreover, after this treaty, Muhammad sent letters to neighbouring sovereigns, including Heraclius, in which he called them to embrace Islam and in which he specified: “aslim taslem - If you become a Muslim, you will be safe” (several sources including Sahih Bukhari).
In reality, the attacks on the caravans of the polytheists never ceased despite the truce. They were the work of groups of slaves newly converted to Islam and having fled their masters polytheists.
23rd expedition at the beginning of the year VII (June 628): Muhammad attacked without real and serious reason, Khaybar and Fadak, the last Jewish cities of Hedjaz located 150 km north of Medina. Muhammad allowed one of his warriors to choose a woman among the captives. The father and husband of the chosen woman, a new 17-year-old bride, had just been killed. When the beauty of this woman was described to Muhammad and when he saw her, he asked the warrior to choose another woman. On the way back, he slept with her without observing the necessary delay of widowhood in order to avoid conflicts of paternal filiation. This period, even reduced to half for women slaves, is mentioned in the Quran (Iddah). As a dowry for the wedding, he offered her freedom from her position as a slave. In a hadith, however, she said, "The prophet was the most detestable man for me, he killed my husband, my father, and my brother" (Sahih Ibn Hibban 11/607 and Kitab Futuh Al-buldan de Al-Baladhuri).
From the 3rd to the 10th month of the year VII, various small military expeditions took place.
In the 11th month of the year VII, Muhammad performed the little pilgrimage as as expected by the Treaty of Hudaybiya and under the authority of the polytheists. The fact that the first pilgrimage took place under the authority of the polytheists could explain the fact that Muhammad exonerated the Muslim women to wear the niqab and gloves when they are in a state of sacralisation.
24th expedition in the 5th month of the year VIII (August 629): Muhammad sent an army of 3,000 men to Mu'tah, more than 1,000 km from Medina (in present-day Jordan), an expedition which ended in loss of the 3 Muslim leaders.
25th expedition in the 9th month of the year VIII (January 630): Muhammad invades Mecca with 10,000 men thus violating the treaty of Houdaybiya concluded for 10 years. The pretext invoked is that the Meccan polytheists helped an allied tribe, the Banu Bakr, to attack the Khuza'a tribe, allied with Muslims. Ibn Ishaq (born in 704) claims that the tribe of Banu Bakr (with polytheists) and the tribe of Khuza'ah (with Muslims) were linked to the treaty of Hudaybiya. But the collections of hadiths of Bukhari, Muslim or Abu Dawud, do not mention these two tribes in the treaty. In addition, some hadiths relating to this treaty mention two source narrators, Marwan ibn al-Ḥakam and Miswar Ben Makhrama, who were only 6 years old at the time of the treaty.
During this conquest, Muhammad again authorized the temporary marriage for a period of 15 days that he had discouraged in Khaybar in 628.
At least one man was murdered on his order, Ibn Khatal. Among the other people he ordered to kill, Abd Allâh ibn Saad, a scribe who had returned to Mecca and apostasized after discovering that he could modify Quran words. Uthman ibn Affan (future 3rd Caliph), who was his foster-brother, interceded on his favor to be pardoned. Muhammad refused his allegiance three times before accepting it and reproached his companions for not killing him before he accepted his allegiance (Sunan Abu Dawud, Kitab al hudud, chap 1: the judgment of the apostasy, 4359).
Muhammad destroyed all the idols of the pantheon, thus putting an end to the tolerance vis-à-vis the religions that were represented there.
26th expedition at the same period: Muhammad sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to destroy the place dedicated to the goddess al-'Uzza.
27th Banu Jadhima expedition at the same period: Muhammad sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam. They accepted but some of them were slaughtered only for saying "we have become Sabeans". Knowing this massacre, Muhammad contented to tell to Khalid ibn al-Walid: "I am innocent of what you have done".
28th Expedition of Hunayn and 29th expedition of Awtas in the 10th month of the year VIII: Muhammad, at the head of 10,000 Muslims and 2,000 new Muslims from Mecca, went on campaign to oppose several polytheistic tribes who decided to march against Muslims. After their defeat, some of these tribes fled to Taif 80 km from Mecca. During this battle, Muhammad condoned the rape of married captives and this will be canonized by verse S4 V24 (Sahih Muslim, Book of Suckling, 1456; Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Marriage, 2155).
30th expedition of Taif, just after that of Awtas: After a siege that lasted more than 15 days and during which Muhammad cut their vineyards and used catapults, the tribes of the region finally ended up accepting Islam. Muhammad allowed his soldiers to attack pagans with the probability of exposing their wives and children to danger from the battles of Al-Abwa or Waddan where he said: "They are part of them, there is no protection only for Allah and his messenger " (several Hadiths of Sahih Bu-khari and Muslim).
Muhammad returned to settle in Medina in the 11th month of the year VIII.
31st expedition of 'Uyayna bin Hisn in the first month of the year IX: Muhammad sent fifty men against the tribe of Banu Tamim who had refused to pay him alms (sectarian practice?). They killed men and made captives.
32nd expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir in the 2nd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent twenty men to attack the Banu Khath'am tribe. The booty of cattle and women was brought back to Medina, several hundred kilometers away.
Dahhak Ibn Sufyan al-Kilabi's 33rd Expedition in the 3rd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent a commando against the Banu Kilab tribe to ask them to become Muslims. The tribe escaped, but one of the young Muslims succeeds in catching up with his own father and participated in his murder because he had insulted Islam.
Ali ibn Abi Talib's 34th expedition in the 3rd month of the year IX: Muhammad sent 150 men against the Banu Tayy, a partly Christian tribe, in the territory of the Nejd, to destroy the statue of the pagan deity Al-fuls. The tribe finally accepts Islam.
35th expedition of Tabouk in the 7th month of the year IX (October 630): Muhammad at the head of several thousand men wanted to fight the blonds (the Byzantines) and would have spent ten days in Tabouk more than 600 km from Medina. On the way back, Muhammad stopped in a village, at the request of its inhabitants, to inaugurate a mosque. But he finally ordered that it be burned because it was built on the orders of a Christian enemy of Islam who had fled in the meantime. The Quran evokes this event (S9 V107).
First pilgrimage to Mecca under Muslim rule in the 11th month of the year IX during which Mu-hammad sent his son-in-law Ali to declare that the pilgrimage will be forbidden to non-Muslims after this year and that only fixed-term pacts will not be broken. The indefinite pacts will be reduced to four months, after which the polytheists will be fought until they embrace Islam. The verses S9 V1 to V7 of the sura “The disavowal” (Bara'ah) refer to the breaking by Allah and his prophet of the covenants that bind them to the polytheists.
Khalid ibn al-Walid's 36th expedition to Najran (Yemen) around June 631 (5th month of Year X) to convert the Banu Harith tribe by force if they refuse Islam. On receiving them, Muhammad told them, "If Khalid ibn al-Walid had not written to me that you had embraced Islam, I would have put your heads under your feet" (episode quoted by several authors).
In the 11th month of the year X (March 632), 80 days before his death, took place the only great pilgrimage of Mahomet called "the farewell pilgrimage", during which he declared that he did not know if he would make the pilgrimage after this one and where he says: "Today, I complete for you your religion" (Quran S5 V3). These two sentences are related to the fact that a few days before his death he still felt the pain caused by the poisoned food he had eaten during the Khaybar expedition. Moreover, Muhammad says that he himself who closed Islam and not Allah, even though he adds that he has conveyed the message.
37th expedition of Dhul Khalasa in April 632: Muhammad sends 150 men to destroy the Kaaba of Yemen. They demolished it and killed those who were there. On their return, Muhammad prayed for them (da`wa).
38th expedition of Usama bin Zayd in the 2nd month of the year XI (May 632) in order to attack the tribes of Palestine (the expedition ended after the death of Muhammad).
During the last days of the illness preceding his death (3rd month of the year XI, June 632), Mu-hammad said to his wife Aisha: "I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaybar and I have impression that my aorta is cut off by this poison”. The Jewish woman who had poisoned him was killed by order of Muhammad after one of his companions died of this poisoning (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Diyah, Chap. 6: From the one who drinks and kills with poison, 4511). Immediately after the death of Muhammad, the future caliph, Abu Bakr, recited the verse ". Muhammad is only a messenger ... " (S3 V144). This is what the narrator of the hadith says: "By Allah, it was like people didn't know that Allah revealed it before Abu Bakr recites it. People learned it from him and everyone started to recite it" (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Funerals, Chap3: Visiting the dead, 1185; Book of Expéditions,The illness and death of the Prophet, 4187).

SOME HADITHS LITTLE KNOWN BY MUSLIMS
All the words and actions of Muhammad are sacred. The Koran says (S33 V21): "You have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent model [to follow] ..." and several verses specify that the Muslim must obey him.

 Muhammad and violence:
Eight men stole the prophet's camels and killed his shepherd. After they were caught, he commanded to cut their hands and feet and gouge out their eyes for having stolen, killed, apostatized and fought against Allah and his messenger (Sahih Muslim, Book of Oaths and Muharibin, Chap. 2: The ruling on Muharibin and Apostates, 1671 and several hadiths of the Sahih Bukhari) .
The Prophet said: “I have been given five things which none of the Prophets before me was given : I won by terror over a month's walking distance …; taking booty has been made lawful for me when it was not lawful for anyone before me;…” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Tayammum, 328 and Prayer book (mosques), Chap. 23 : The saying of the Prophet, 427).
The Prophet said : “If someone changes his religion, kill him” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of djihad, Chap. 147 : One does not punish with Allah's punishment, 2854).
Hadith in several versions where Muhammad says: “I have been ordered to fight against people until they testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah… »
I heard the Prophet, say, “At the end of time there will come a people who are young in years with foolish minds. Kill them wherever you find them. There will be a reward for those who kill them on the Day of Rising (Sahih Bukhari, Book of the Virtues of the Qur'an, Chap. 36: The sin of someone who recites the Qur'an to, 4770)
The Messenger of Allah said: « One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah nor did he ex-press any desire for Jihad died the death of a hypocrite (Sahih Muslim, Book of Governance, Chap. 47: Disapproval of one who dies without fighting, 1910).
The Prophet said: “I would love to be killed in Allah’s cause, then to be resurrected, then killed again, then to be resurrected, then killed again, then to be resurrected and then killed again” (Sev-eral hadiths of the Sahih Bukhari).
The Prophet said to the Jews: “Become Muslim and you will be safe. Know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Messenger. I want to expel you from this land” (Sahih Bukhari, 2996/6545).
Regarding a man accused of fornication, the Messenger of Allah said to Ali, "Go cut off his neck". But Ali found him castrated, he did not do anything to him, he returned to the messenger of Allah and said to him: "he is majbub, he has no sex" (Sahih Muslim, Book of Repentance, Chap. 11: innocence of the prophet's wife, 2771).
The Messenger of Allah said : « Command your children to perform prayer when they are seven years old, and beat them to do it when they are ten » (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of Prayer, Chap. 26: At what age is the child ordered to pray, 495).
Sahl b. Sa’d as-Sa’id reports that someone was looking through the door of the Messenger of Allah while the Messenger of Allah was using a metal comb. When the Messenger of Allah saw him, he said to him, "If I had seen you watching, I would have stuck this in your eye" (Sahih Mulim, 2156 and Jami’ Attirmidhi, 2709).

 Muhammad and slavery:
During those 10 years of warrior jihad, Muhammad had guaranteed slavery.
I saw the Messenger of Allah, when there were only with him five slaves and two women (Sahih Bukhari, Book of the Virtues of the Companions, Chap. 5: The words of the Prophet, 3460; Chap. 59: Abu Bakr becomes Muslim, 3644).
The Prophet sells a slave for 800 dirhams, when he was to be released after the death of his master (several hadiths from the Sahih Bukhari and the Sahih Muslim).
His wife, Maymuna Bint al-Harith had freed a slavegirl without asking permission from him. The day he came to see her, he told her, "If you gave her to your maternal uncles, you would have had a greater reward" (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Gifts, Chap. 14 : A woman giving gifts to other than her husband, 2452, 2454).
The Prophet stopped for three days between Khaybar and Madina and consummated his marriage with Safiyya bint Huyayy. The Muslims said: “Is she one of the Mothers of the Believers or a slave”? They said: “If he screens her, then she is one of the Mothers of the Believers. If he does not screen her, then she is his slavegirl” (Sahih Bukhari, Book of Marriage, Chap. 60: Consummation of marriage during the trip, 4864).
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, in his book "Zad al-Ma'ad", quotes the names of four women slaves of Muhammad, about twenty men unfreed slaves and eight servants including Bilal ibn Rabah. At the time of Mahomet and the first caliphs the freed slaves remained in the service of their master and had the status of mawla.

 Muhammad’s practices contrary to the Quran :
The Quran recognizes the iniquity of polygamy (S4 V129: "You can never be fair between your wives ..."), but allows it anyway! Even though Islam allows it, Muhammad prevented his son-in-law, Ali, from taking a second wife. He told him that what was hurting his daughter was hurting him too, and that if he wanted to take a second wife, he had to divorce his daughter first (Sahih Bukhari, Book of marriage, Chap. 108: A man defending his daughter, 4932).). The pretext, that the woman Ali wanted to marry was the daughter of a polytheist cannot be held back since Muhammad had also married a polytheist’s daughter.
The Quran S58 V12 asks Muslims to precede with an alms their confidential talks with Muhammad and asserts that zakat and alms are for the poor. In reality, they were harvested by Muhammad and the caliphs who succeeded him but were not or were little distributed to the poor. The same goes for the share of the booty coming back to Muhammad and the caliphs - a fifth - and which was not or little distributed to the poor.

 Muhammad’s strange behavior :
Muhammad allows adult suckling (Sahih Muslim, Book of Suckling, Chap. 7: Suckling adults, several hadiths with different chains of transmission).
Muhammad said to one of his wives: "The revelation never comes to me when I am in the clothes of a woman, except [that of] Aisha" (Sahih Bukhari, Book of gifts, Chap. 7: The one who gave his friend a gift, 2442).
The prophet was lying on his bed, wearing Aicha's mirt. When Othman entered, Muhammad sat down and said to Aicha: "Pick up on you your clothes” (Sahih Muslim, Book of Merits of the Companions, Chap. 3: Merits of Othman, 2402)
In a hadith collected by Bukhari and Abu Dawud, Muhammad uses a vulgar word in a question to Ma’iz: "Did you **** her ?" (Anektaha)
The prophet was wearing an izar when his uncle Al Abbas said to him, "O son of my brother, if you untied your izar to put it on your shoulders so that it protects you from stones". The prophet untied his izar, put it on his shoulders, and then fell unconscious. After that, he was never seen naked again (Sahih Bukhari, Prayer Book, Chap. 7: aversion to nudity, 357).
During the fast, Muhammad kissed his wives (Sahih Bukhari 294, 316, 317 and 1828; Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of the fast, Chap. 33 to 35) and touched them (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book of the fast, Chap. 33: Kissing for the faster, 2382)
I saw the Messenger of Allah dyeing his hair with henna (Sahih Bukhari, 164 and 5513).
According to Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet had declared: «Jews and Christians do not dye their hair, so do the opposite» (Book of Dress, Chap. 65: Dyeing, 5559).
Muhammad had gummed hair during the pilgrimage (Sahih Bukhari, 1491, 1638, 4137 and 5572)

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

It's is an interesting read but it's scope is from a theological perspective only.
None of the three Jewish tribes expelled or massacred is mentioned in the agreement between Muslims from Mecca (Emigrants) and those from Medina (Ansars). 17th expedition, some time after the battle of the trench. Muhammad sent a group of Muslims to eliminate the old Jewish poet Abu Rafi.
Jewish records and correspondence - very extended in this century - have nothing on Jewish tribes or settlements in the Hijaz.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Hombre
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Hombre »

I am looking for any credible information on Muhammad's life between the age of 12 to 25. What did he do for a living?, places outside Mekkah where he visited?

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Most likely young Muhammad assisted his father running a textile empire with its headquarters in Tiberias and was trained at the local Academy where his father was one of the ḥaberim or associates in the tradition of Johanan. This tradition aimed to restore the temple and that's what happened shortly after Muhammad's death - as eyewitness accounts tell us.

Local Bedouin traditions in Jordan tell how young Muhammad visited Mount Aron or Jebel Harun at Petra and honored Aron's tomb. Other early accounts tell how young Muhammad and his closest relatives visited ports and cities that were part of the local trade network (Gazah, Bosra etc).

Due to a lack of historical sources a biography of young Muhammad will never contain detailed information. So if it does, it's a fake.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

panis
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by panis »

Are there credible information about the life of Muhammad? My answer is no. Are there sources outside of those of Muslims? The answer is no.
Muhammad's biography is very poorly known, both by Westerners and by Muslims. Only the jihadists know it well.

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Are there credible information about the life of Muhammad? My answer is no.
Agree. But before examining the biography of Muhammad you have to understand how religious propaganda works - it's a canonization of the views of his followers. You can compare it with the stories surrounding Greta Thunberg, the 'brave qirl' warning humanity against the coming end-of-days due to 'Climate Change'. Views on Muhammad developed in a similar context - many believed the world was coming to an end in a era of endless wars, (real) climate change and epidemics raging though the Near East.
Are there sources outside of those of Muslims? The answer is no.
Yes and no. There is enough material that can be used to eliminate parts of the bio that doesn't match with historical records, linguistical evidence or contemporary accounts.
Muhammad's biography is very poorly known, both by Westerners and by Muslims. Only the jihadists know it well
Indeed, as a propaganda tool. Some early Muslim scholars did question the validity of this biography, another fact poorly known by most.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Ariel »

Hombre wrote:I am looking for any credible information on Muhammad's life between the age of 12 to 25. What did he do for a living?, places outside Mekkah where he visited?
Have you ever read the Prophet of Doom ? http://www.prophetofdoom.net" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Prophet of Doom is the best-documented, most comprehensive, presentation of Islam's five oldest and most reliable scriptural sources. Ishaq's Biography of Muhammad, Tabari's History of Islam, and Bukhari's and Muslim's Hadith, were used to reorder the Qur'an chronologically and to set its surahs into the context of Muhammad's life. When this evidence is evaluated systematically, the only rational conclusion is that Islam's lone prophet was a ruthless terrorist, a mass-murderer, a thief, slave trader, rapist and pedophile.
You can download the book for free.
The heart of the wise inclines to the right,
but the heart of the fool to the left.

panis
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by panis »

Takeiteasynow wrote:Most likely young Muhammad assisted his father running a textile empire with its headquarters in Tiberias and was trained at the local Academy where his father was one of the ḥaberim or associates in the tradition of Johanan.
What are the sources? How reliable are they?
how young Muhammad visited Mount Aron or Jebel Harun at Petra and honored Aron's tomb
What are the sources? How reliable are they?

panis
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by panis »

Takeiteasynow wrote: you have to understand how religious propaganda works
Goebbels has been an amateur in comparison to Muslim since 14 centuries
There is enough material that can be used to eliminate parts of the bio that doesn't match with historical records, linguistical evidence or contemporary accounts.
What is this material and what are the historical documents, linguistic evidence or contemporary accounts ?

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Simple questions that would require a very long answer.

Before writing any biography of the historical Muhammad you need to understand what happened in the pre-Islamic era. Most analysis - if not all - of the current bio were done from a Jewish-Christian background. The issue with this approach is that rabbinical Judaism or even Christianity were both late developments in comparison to the arrival of Islam. Both religions were for four centuries only small islands in an ocean of Messianic Judaism that spanned almost the entire fertile crescent.

So why use island views when there's an ocean to explore?
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

Panis wrote:The verses concerning biblical figures will appear at the end of the Meccan period (before 622). If the Quran and Sunna claim that the figures such as Ibrahim, Ismail, Isaac, Dawud (David), Moussa (Moses), Souleyman (Solomon), 'Issa (Jesus), etc. belong to Islam, we can see that these first names never appear among the companions of Muhammad or other people of the Hijaz before Hegira (622), proof is that Islam did not exist before Muhammad . On the other hand names starting with 'Abd (slave of) or 'Oubayd (diminutive of Abd) are anterior to Islam.
Interesting view. The most common and widely distributed theophoric name in the pre-Islamic era is abdallah or abdallas in its Greek version, attested from Sinai to Palmyra. This name is attested as bd'hl or bd'lhy meaning servant of god, equivalent to biblical Obadiah.

Now who is the most prominent 'Servant of God' in the Old Testament? That's Moses. So I wonder if your research attests names like Abdullah or abdallah in the Sunna.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

panis
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by panis »

Takeiteasynow wrote: Most analysis - if not all - of the current bio were done from a Jewish-Christian background.
What are the sources?

panis
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by panis »

Takeiteasynow wrote:
Panis wrote:So I wonder if your research attests names like Abdullah or abdallah in the Sunna.
Muhammad's father

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Hombre
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Hombre »

panis wrote:Are there credible information about the life of Muhammad? My answer is no. Are there sources outside of those of Muslims? The answer is no.
Muhammad's biography is very poorly known, both by Westerners and by Muslims. Only the jihadists know it well.
It is therefore safe to compare Muhammad's childhood to any average boy of his age during that era.

A normal childhood until the age of 12. Then joining the family to earn a living. Most logical assumption - either he worked in the local shouk (Merchant Market) as a Currier, or join the Silk Road caravan from Mecca to & from Aden (Yemen) & Damascus. Cities in which he received his initial schooling in Judea & Christianity & associated Biblical stories which later had laid the foundation of the Quran itself.

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

panis wrote:
Takeiteasynow wrote: Most analysis - if not all - of the current bio were done from a Jewish-Christian background.
What are the sources?
Are ya kidding me? A two hundred year old tradition started in the 19th century with Aloys Sprenger, Theodor Noldeke, Gustav Weil, William Muir, Sigismund Koelle, Grimme, D.S. Margoliout etc. The last decade many authors published reviews of his biography and life, either positive or negative. For instance books of the extreme non-intellect Karen Amstrong or the much better researched work of Daniel Pipes.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

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Takeiteasynow
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Takeiteasynow »

panis wrote:
Takeiteasynow wrote:
Panis wrote:So I wonder if your research attests names like Abdullah or abdallah in the Sunna.
Muhammad's father
The only one? Then it's theologically composed due to it's importance- Moses/Abdallah and Muhammad are the only ones acting as messenger and prophet in the Abrahamic tradition = Moses as the spiritual father of Muhammad.
Abraham= H'ammu'rab(b)i, Historical Muhammad=Benjamin of Tiberias. Islam: Syncretic Israelite Yahwishm Deity: nameless, epithets Dsr, El Qutbay, ʼAlâhâ, Allāh. Ka'ba: Kutha => Samaria => Petra=> Makkah. Hijrah 622: Petra => Kerak

farishta
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by farishta »

I humbly suggest two books by Lesley Hazleton.
The First Muslim: the story of Mohammad
Even if you can not manage the book do read the reviews at Amazon. I found it a great read.
After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam
This one gives good insight into modern upheaval in the Muslim world.

I was surprised to learn that both these books banned in Pakistan .

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Hombre
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Re: THE LITTLE-KNOWN BIOGRAPHY OF MUHAMMAD

Post by Hombre »

farishta wrote:I humbly suggest two books by Lesley Hazleton.
The First Muslim: the story of Mohammad
Even if you can not manage the book do read the reviews at Amazon. I found it a great read.
After the Prophet: The Epic Story of the Shia-Sunni Split in Islam
This one gives good insight into modern upheaval in the Muslim world.

I was surprised to learn that both these books banned in Pakistan .
I did read the book. Describing Muhammad - She literary walks on rope not insult Muslims sensitivity. She goes to great length to be poilitically correct. I guess she remembered Salman Rushdie with his book "Satanic Versius" & didn't want to walk the streets with mark on her chest,

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